Posts or Comments 27 January 2022

Archive for "Monitoring"



IPTp &ITNs &Monitoring &Treatment Bill Brieger | 07 Apr 2015

Highlights from Malawi’s 2014 Malaria Information Survey

Two major forms of malaria data collection help inform national malaria control programs and their supporters about progress and help focus continued resources and interventions. Routine national health information tells us about program implementation on a regular basis. National surveys give us a point-in-time picture of coverage.  For the latter, Malawi has been fortunate in recent times to have conducted Malaria Information Surveys every two years.

Pf_mean_2010_MWIMalawi continues to have endemic malaria as documented by the MAP project in the attached graphic. While some of its neighbors in southern Africa are moving toward elimination, Malawi still experiences prevalence (as measured by rapid diagnostic test) in children below five years of age of 43%, 28% and 33% in 2010, 2012 and 2014 respectively.

In the chart below we can see that malaria preventive measures have varied in coverage over the three survey periods and may be said to be on a very slightly upward trend.  The Roll Back Malaria target of 80% coverage by 2010 and the US President’s Malaria Initiative target of 85% are still illusive.

In fact, simply having an ITN in the home is no guarantee that people will use it. Overall in 2014 72% of people living in a house with a net slept under one the night before the survey. The rate of use was better for children below five years of age (87%) and pregnant women (85%), but a gap remains.

Malawi MIS 2014 HighlightsOverall coverage for two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) remains low. Now that WHO is recommending IPTp with SP during each antenatal care visit after 13 weeks, we are aiming for 3, 4 or more doses. In 2014 89% pregnant women in Malawi received one dose, 63% received two and 12% received three.

Malaria treatment for febrile children was the indicator with the best performance (not counting the fact that treatment was not always preceded by a diagnostic test).  Most (93%) of children took an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) drug, and 74% took it within a day of fever onset.

The 2014 MIS provides more detailed breakdown by region and socio-economic group, which should be helpful for planning.  The major take home message though is that five years after the RBM target dates, many countries, Malawi included, have not been able to scale up and sustain the high intervention coverage needed to bring down mortality and guide us on the pathway to malaria elimination.

As the 2015 Millennium Development Goals are being replaced with a broader development agenda, we hope that malaria will not become a neglected tropical disease again. Actually using data from the MIS to take timely decisions by national programs and donors is essential to keep us on the path.

Health Systems &Human Resources &IPTp &Malaria in Pregnancy &Monitoring Bill Brieger | 03 Nov 2014

Jhpiego at ASTMH: Performance Quality Improvement for IPTp in Kenya

Monday afternoon (3 October 2014) at the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Jhpiego and USAID/PMI are sponsoring a panel on “Integrating and Innovating: Strengthening Care for Mothers and Children with Infectious Diseases.” If you are at the meeting please attend to learn more about our Malaria activities in Kenya.

Endemic areasOne of the panel presentations is “Performance Quality Improvement Lending to Corrected Documented Outcomes for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Kenya,” by Jhpiego staff Muthoni Kariuki, Augustine Ngindu Isaac Malonza, and Sanyu Kigondu, who are working with USAID’s Maternal & Child Health Integrated Project (MCHIP).

According to Malaria policy in Kenya all pregnant women in malaria endemic areas receive free intermittent preventive treatment with SP have access to free malaria diagnosis and treatment when presenting with fever have access to LLINs (National Malaria Strategy (NMS) 2009–2017).

By 2013 80% of people living in malaria risk areas should be using appropriate malaria preventive interventions. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy using Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) intervention is recommended for use in malaria endemic region.

PQI approachMCHIP broadly implemented Capacity Development and service delivery and improvement interventions that also had impact on the delivery of malaria in pregnancy services through collaboration with the Ministry of Health divisions/units at national level: (malaria, reproductive health, community health).

At county level scale up provision of IPTp at facility level took place in 14 malaria endemic counties. This included 8 counties in the lake endemic region including Bondo sub-county (the MCHIP model sub-county) and 6 in the coastal endemic region.

Quality Improvement through Performance Quality Improvement (PQI) process was instituted to enhance service delivery. The MCHIP era in Bondo Strengthened ANC Services using the following:

  • Development of MIP Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) standards
  • Orientation of facility in-charges, supervisors and service providers on the standards
  • Monitoring of IPTp uptake using DHIS2 data
  • Feedback to facility in-charges and supervisors on DHIS2 findings
  • Collection of ANC data from ANC registers (2011-2013)
  • Feedback to facility in-charges and supervisors on ANC data

Quality improvement in the malaria in pregnancy component was undertaken with the objective to improve quality of MIP services including IPTp data management at facility level using PQI approach. An Example of a MIP SBM-R standard is seen below.

Sample StandardIn-service training focused on orientation of facility in-charges on PQI who then continued orientation at Facility Level. Overall we oriented 1200 facility in-charges and 100 supervisors on the standards. Facility in-charges cascaded orientation to 2,441 service providers.

ANC DataWe then analysed ANC data from DHIS (2011-2013) indicated proportion of pregnant women receiving IPTp2 was higher than IPTp1 (IPTp2+ doses reported as IPTp2 dose). We helped improve reporting by  service providers not oriented on use of the ANC register in order to reduce data errors.

In conclusion, PQI is a best practice in provision of MIP services. Standardization of knowledge among service providers is essential in provision of quality MIP services. Development of facility in-charges as mentors in the facility to ensure continued orientation of new service providers.

Use of appropriate monitoring tools is necessary to assist in assessment of quality of services provided including data management. Feedback to service providers is one of the performance rewards and encourages participation in knowledge acquisition

 

 

Monitoring Bill Brieger | 17 Jul 2014

Improving the Quality of Malaria Data in Burkina Faso

Jhpiego and partners have been implementing USAID’s Improving Malaria Care (IMC) project in Burkina Faso for the past 9 months. In the paragraphs below, the team in Ouagadougou has reported their experiences in improving the quality of malaria data reported from the district level. Good quality data are needed to identify challenges and successes and make decisions for future malaria programming

DSCN5436 reviewing malaria treatment recordsIMC involves data collectors (Healthcare providers) directly in the data validation process. Previously, the malaria data validation was supported by the Global Funds and was done at the Regional level. The new approach proposed by IMC is to organize malaria data validation at district level where the healthcare providers who continuously collect data, can participate in the data validation meetings.

The pilot phase was conducted in the first 20 supported Health Districts in April (14th – 18th). In total, 520 healthcare providers attended the data validation meetings across 20 Health Districts. The most important lessons learnt are following:

  1. The involvement of the primary data collectors (Healthcare providers) in this activity reinforced their capacity to improve data quality;
  2. The correction of the mistakes made during these meeting have been integrated in the national database (BD_Malaria);
  3. This was another opportunity to explain the key indicators of malaria and how to control the data quality inside of the Health Facility;
  4. Based on the quantity of the mistakes noted during these data validation meetings in only 20 Health Districts (20 of 63 HD), we can affirm that these are some important data quality issues.

Dr Kam Semon, District Medical Officer of Banfora Health DistrictDr Kam Semon, District Medical Officer of Banfora Health District, after the Data validation workshop shared his views of the experience.

“Firstly, allow me to thank Jhpiego for his permanent assistance and innovation regarding healthcare management. I have appreciated the new approach developed by Jhpiego to ensure data quality. During this meeting I have noted that they are lot of mistakes in the data we used to plan and to make decision.

“I have noted that the Data manager at District level and healthcare providers (who collect routine data) have to work very closely to improve and ensure data quality. That means we have to more involve the Data Manager of District in the regular supervision visits. […] I promised you to use the new approach for all health data validation.

“I will discuss with my team, to include the data validation using that new approach in our quarterly health management meeting. I would like to thank Jhpiego once again. I also thank USAID for his financial support to the IMC project. “

Health Information &Monitoring Bill Brieger | 22 Jun 2014

Regular data Review Meetings in Mozambique, a Path to Improving Malaria Service Delivery

Health Alliance International (HAI) of the University of Washington, is collaborating with Centro de Investigação Operacional da Beira (CIOB) is based in Beira, Mozambique to improve the quality and use of routine monitoring and evaluation data from the health facility through to the district in Sofala Province. The aim is to strengthen the health system through data for decision making and improve quality and uptake of services. This effort is sponsored by a grant from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.

DSCN6314A key feature of the program is a regular data review meeting where representatives from health facilities in a district come together and each presents his/her standard Ministry of Health service indicators in a simple slide format.  After each presentation the speaker received feedback from the group, including members of the district health management team, on successes and challenges and is encouraged to make plans to improve both data quality and service uptake.

The data review meetings started with an overview of all HIV, reproductive, maternal and child health indicators. Separate review meetings for malaria service indicators have been recently introduced.

According to members of the district teams, the individual facility staff presenters have grown more skilled in formatting their data and presenting to an audience. Overall, participants in these meetings appear enthusiastic and interested in the results of their peers. Constructive critiques are the norm, and speakers express appreciation for suggestions on how they can improve their services and the resulting data.

IPTp preA sample chart from a health facility showing a quarterly review of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is seen to the right.  After viewing this, meeting participants might ask the presenter what are the reasons for the drop-off in coverage. If for example, the problem of late antenatal care (ANC) attendance is mentioned, the group can ask the presenter to consider how to encourage women to attend earlier.

IPTp postIf the presenter then goes back and implements the suggestions, the second chart might reflect the results of improved service uptake. In this way the overall project hopes that close examination of their own data by service providers can strengthen service delivery and the health system.

We look forward to hearing more about this unique process so that it can be disseminated in other malaria endemic countries.

Epidemiology &Health Information &Monitoring &Surveillance Bill Brieger | 26 Apr 2014

iPhones for household malaria surveys in Sierra Leone

World Malaria Day 2014 was observed at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on Friday 25 April. 21 posters were presented. Below is the abstract of a poster presented by Suzanne Van Hull of Catholic Relief Services.iForm Builder picture on iPhone

Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) of Sierra Leone (SL) are co-implementing nationwide malaria prevention and treatment activities funded by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In order to track progress and impact, CRS and partners led the implementation of a malaria indicator survey (MIS) in early 2013 covering a nationally-representative sample of 6,720 households, inclusive of blood testing to determine prevalence of anemia and malaria. In early 2012, CRS also had the experience of using mobile technology for a Knowledge Attitude and Practices (KAP) study.

Fieldworkers used Apple 3GS iPhones for both surveys to collect data via the iFormBuilder platform, a web-based, software-as-services application with a companion app for the mobile devices allowing for timely data collection, monitoring, and analysis.

This was the first time that iPhones were used for a MIS, and lessons learned include: allowing at least four months to transform paper-based questionnaires into electronic format, giving the program enough time for pre-testing the tool and training data collectors/biomarkers/laboratory technicians, and involving key malaria stakeholders to ensure a nationally-led survey. Global Positioning Systems enabled the MoHS to make in-depth analyses on malaria trends based on geographic locations.

KAP survey on iPhoneOverall the benefits of an electronic versus a paper-based MIS questionnaire outweighed the challenges. The iPhone technology eliminated the need for paper transcribing, allowing for quicker data tabulation, real-time identification of mistakes, faster interviewing through skip patterns, and a close-to-clean dataset by the end of data collection saving time and money.

Survey results will be used to set evidence-based targets for all partners’ future malaria activities, especially the next 3 years of GF-supported malaria grants

Diagnosis &Monitoring &Surveillance Bill Brieger | 21 Jan 2014

World Malaria Report 2013: Surveillance and Monitoring, Getting to the Heart of the Matter

Although “Malaria surveillance, monitoring and evaluation” is the seventh of eight chapters in the 2013 World Malaria Report (WMR), it is in fact the heart of the matter.  Progress on goals, finance, vector control, preventive therapies, diagnosis and treatment and of course impact (chapters 2-6 and 8) could not be produced without the documentation processes discussed in Chapter Seven. So what does WMR 2013 tell us about the status of malaria surveillance?

DSCN1496The global press has been taken by World Health Organization estimates that deaths from malaria world-wide have reduced by fifty percent since 2000.[i] These claims have been made despite the note in WMR 2013 that, “In 2012, in 62 countries of 103 that had ongoing malaria transmission in 2000, reporting was considered to be sufficiently consistent to make a reliable judgment about malaria trends for 2000–2012. In the 41 remaining countries, which account for 80% of estimated cases, it is not possible to reliably assess malaria trends using the data submitted to WHO. Information systems are weakest, and the challenges for strengthening systems are greatest, where the malaria burden is greatest.”[ii]

WHO explains that, “Improved surveillance for malaria cases and deaths will help ministries to determine which areas or population groups are most affected and help to target resources to communities most in need.”  WHO suggests that the design of malaria surveillance systems focuses on two fundamental factors. First, the level of malaria transmission should be ascertained, and the resources available to conduct surveillance must be made available. WHO has released two manuals to strengthen malaria surveillance depending on whether the country is high burden and still at the level of “Malaria Control,”[iii] or the country is approaching “Malaria Elimination.”[iv]

3T BrocheureThe World Health Organization has issued a series of documents focusing on “Test. Treat. Track.” or ‘3T’.  In short these documents support malaria-endemic countries in their efforts to achieve universal coverage with 1) diagnostic testing, 2) antimalarial treatment, and 3) strengthening their malaria surveillance systems to track the disease.[v]

WHO notes that in elimination settings, surveillance systems should seek to identify and immediately provide notification of all malaria infections, whether they are symptomatic or not. A summary of WHO’s recommendations for the “Track” or surveillance aspect of 3T follow:

  1. Individual cases should be registered at health facility level. This allows for the recording of suspected cases, diagnostic test results, and treatments administered
  2. In the malaria control phase, countries should report suspected, presumed and confirmed cases separately, and summarize aggregate data on cases and deaths on a monthly basis
  3. Countries in elimination phase should undertake a full investigation of each malaria case.

Some country examples of surveillance efforts in the move toward malaria elimination will be featured in the upcoming January 2014 issue of Africa Health. Watch for it at: http://www.africa-health.com/


[i] Pizzi M. WHO: Malaria deaths of young children cut by half, but gains ‘fragile’. Aljazeera America. December 11, 2013. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/12/11/who-malaria-battlehalfwaywon.html

[ii] WHO GLOBAL MALARIA PROGRAMME. World Malaria Report: 2013. World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 2013. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2013/en/index.html

[iii] World Health Organization. Disease surveillance for malaria control. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2012.

[iv] World Health Organization. Disease surveillance for malaria elimination: an operational manual. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2012.

[v] World Health Organization. Test. Treat. Track. Scaling up diagnostic testing, treatment and surveillance for malaria. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2012.

Monitoring &Surveillance Bill Brieger | 16 Nov 2013

Malaria Highlights at TropMed2013 Saturday 16th November

Below please find a brief list of some of the presentations coming up today at the American Society of Tropical Medicine 62nd Annual Conference in Washington DC. Click links to view abstracts.

AnnualMeetinggraphic

Rapid clearance of parasitemia by the novel spiroindolone KAE609 in a phase 2 open-label study of adults with acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or vivax malaria mono-infection by Nicholas White et al.

In summary, when administered 30 mg daily for 3 days, KAE609 was well tolerated and achieved rapid parasite clearance in adult patients with uncomplicated P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria infection.

Symposium on Implementation of Mass Drug Administration for Malaria Control and Elimination. Symposium Organizer: Roly Gosling, Global Health Group, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco

With the recognition that a large proportion of malaria infections are low density, below the level of detection by microscopy or Rapid Diagnostic Test, MDA is coming back into favor. The speakers will explore the drug choices available for MDA in different settings; for example, for P. falciparum settings in Haiti, The Gambia and the Artemsisinin Resistance Containment zone, and for P. vivax in Asia and the Pacific.

Innovative Field Tools for Detecting Counterfeit Medicines – The Case Study of Anti-Malarials. Symposium Organizer: JOEL BREMAN, FOGARTY INTERNATIONAL CENTER, NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH

The need for innovative field tools for the detection of spurious/falsely-labelled/falsified/counterfeit medicines is becoming increasingly important, particularly in low-resource settings. A global public health crisis is looming, especially in malaria treatment and prevention, where up to 90 percent of antimalarials in surveys done in Asia and Africa are reported to be falsified or substandard.

Session: Malaria Epidemiology – Tracking Trends and Finding Foci, Village-level characteristics associated with spatial distributions of malaria-infected individuals in an area of Southern Zambia receiving mass screening and treatment by David A Larson et al.

Varying spatial distributions of malaria-infected individuals appear to be driven by vector abundance and gametocyte prevalence in the population. The ability to clearly delineate village malaria prevalence may assist in developing mechanisms for focused interventions to optimize their effectiveness.

Session: Malaria Epidemiology – Tracking Trends and Finding Foci. Reservoirs of asymptomatic malaria in Malawi: results of two cross-sectional studies by Jenny A. Walldorf et al.

In Malawi and potentially in other endemic settings, school age children represent important reservoirs of asymptomatic infection and should be targeted for interventions to interrupt transmission.

Session: Malaria Epidemiology – Tracking Trends and Finding Foci. Sustained Declining Burden of Malaria at Community level in Northeastern Tanzania. by Acleus S. Rutta et al.

The reported decline of malaria in most parts of Tanzania has some implication on accuracy of malaria diagnosis and management. The current remarkable and sustained decline in malaria suggests that these areas might be moving from control to pre-elimination levels.

Community &Monitoring &Treatment Bill Brieger | 12 Nov 2013

Community registers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria track malaria treatment and integrated services

Below is the abstract for a poster being presented by a team from Jhpiego at the upcoming 62nd annual meeting of the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene November 13-17 2013 at the Marriott Wardman Park in Washington DC.  If you are at the conference, stop by poster number LB-2289 on Friday and discuss with Bright Orji.

Community Directed Distributors bring their registers to the nearby clinic for monthly supervision meetings

Community Directed Distributors bring their registers to the nearby clinic for monthly supervision meetings

Community Directed Treated with Ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis successfully reached 100,000 African villages with locally selected volunteers known as Community Directed Distributors (CDDs). Recognizing CDTI’s potential other health programs added a variety of interventions to the work of CDDs. Jhpiego (an Affiliate of Johns Hopkins University) successfully engaged communities and their CDDs in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria to control malaria in pregnancy from 2007-11, and subsequently found the communities willing to expand into integrated community case management (ICCM) of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia. This report documents iCCM services given by CDDs.

The project mobilized 108 kin groups (100 +/- people) in 6 clinic catchment areas two Local Government Areas of the State. Each kin group selected 1-2 CDDs. Overall, 152 CDDs were trained by staff of local health centers. CDDs continued to provide intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and then added malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs); Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy for positive RDT results; oral rehydration solution and zinc tablets for diarrhea, and cotrimoxazole for pneumonia.

Data were extracted one year’s information from a sample of 68 community registers by three health staff using a checklist. During the period 2,202 clients were seen by CDDs with ages ranging from infancy to adulthood. Overall 33.3% were treated for malaria, 20.3% for pneumonia and 7.8% for diarrhoea (a few had multiple problems). Among the client visits, 30.6% were for pregnant women receiving a dose of IPTp.

RDTs were used with 1550 clients (70.4%) who had suspected malaria and 44.1% were positive. The breakdown of the 734 treated for malaria was positive RDT (93.1%), negative RDT (2.2%) and no test (5.2%). Community registers have shown that volunteer CDDs can provide a variety of front line health services, and can fairly correctly follow malaria testing and treatment procedures.

Coordination &Monitoring Bill Brieger | 11 Nov 2013

Challenges in Malaria Health Information Collection and Coordination

Today This Day Live News reported on challenges of data coordination in the health system in Nigeria. Ndubuisi Francis reported that, “The multiplicity of conflicting data on health by various agencies is a major impediment to an effective and efficient health care delivery system in the country. Director, Disease Control and Immunisation, National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), Dr. Emmanuel Abanida, said resolving the conflict in the national health management information system (HMIS) is a step towards getting the system right.” The problem is not unique to Nigeria.

Health facility staff compile monthly data reports

Health facility staff compile monthly data reports

To learn more about how this problem affects malaria data we discussed with two staff of the Jhpiego office in Abuja, Gbenga Ishola and Bright Orji, who have been involved for many years in malaria monitoring and evaluation activities at national, state and local levels.  The results of this discussion follow:

1. Incorporating Community Health Worker Data into HMIS

As the country moved toward community case management to reach coverage targets, the HMIS has worked with NMCP to establish a community data collection template. However, the level of utilization of the community level register is poor. Also the integration of this into facility output remains a key challenge. Furthermore, there has not been a feedback mechanism to the community of data collected from them. So, it is not only collection of data but use of data for decision-making whether at the Local Government (LG) level, facility or community remains part of the challenge.

2. Movement of Data from Facility to District to State to National

There is an existing data flow pattern. Data from facility HMIS registers are expected to be collated on monthly basis into a monthly summary form at facility level. The summary forms are sent to the Local Government Monitoring and Evaluation Unit which then sends this to the state level. Data flow is also not as smooth as intended. Most often facilities do not collate and send to the LG, and thus state data reporting that is suppose to be quarterly is distorted. The obvious complaint is always logistics.

The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) monitors state data reporting by aggregating total number of facilities reporting each month and determining reporting rate for the states. Each state reports total number of health facilities in the state, and how many of these facilities submitted a monthly report during review period. For example, if a state has 1,000 health facilities but only 500 submitted monthly reports, the state would have scored 50% in data reporting. This is to encourage state to improve on data collection and reporting and is part of the report and discussions at the annual malaria program’s manager meetings.

3. Parallel Reporting Systems

There are two examples of parallel systems through which malaria data move. The National Primary Health Care Development Agency, a section of the Ministry of Health responsible for assisting LGs strengthen their primary care systems collects health data from those facilities in addition to the facilities reporting through the HMIS.  Recently the Director of the HMIS indicated that his unit is trying to harmonize the existing system. The completeness of each system varies depending on how LGs and states decide to report.

DSCN9997smSince the HMIS collects only a limited selection of malaria indicators, the NMCP makes an effort to collect more detailed statistics of all services. Some of the indicators monitored by NMCP are not in HMIS. The consequence is that health workers often abandon the NMCP register because it contains more entries than HMIS.

The HMIS collects 1) Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) provided and 2) doses of Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp) given (1st and 2nd). NMCP additionally tracks number of fever cases, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) conducted (and whether RDT results are negative, positive or invalid), and antimalarial medicines administered (whether quinine or ACT).

While the National HMIS unit is working to harmonize the data collection formats for all diseases including malaria cases, bringing the NMCP to participate in meetings and discussions has been a major problem. This makes it very difficult for the HMIS to be able to quote data relating to specific diseases when necessary.

4. Special Data Requirements

As in other countries, the Global Fund expects countries to report of a regular, quarterly basis on achievements based on their currently operating grant. The data required for these reports is essential for maintaining the flow of funding, but this information is not necessarily within the basic HMIS set of indicators. Global Fund is interested in consumption data for forecasting for national needs, but this has been very difficult to collect due to some of the above challenges.

DSCN1485 sm

Bright Orji and Gbenga Ishola review malaria in pregnancy data with local government nurse-midwife

The number and detail of indicators reported to the Global Fund for Nigeria’s Round 8 malaria grant reflect the complexity of reporting required that would not be included in HMIS. Below are a few examples of the malaria treatment related indicators only. HMIS would not be collecting program process data like training and does not really reach the private sector.

  • Number of children under five with uncomplicated malaria receiving ACT treatment according to National guidelines (all oints of care)
  • Number of children under five with uncomplicated malaria receiving ACT treatment according to National guidelines through the public sector
  • Number of people (over 5) with uncomplicated malaria receiving ACT treatment according to National guidelines through the public sector
  • Number of person (over 5) with uncomplicated malaria receiving ACT treatment according to National guidelines through the private sector
  • Percentage of participating health facilities in the public sector reporting no stock out of ACTs for 1 week or more within the last 3 months
  • Number of health care providers trained in malaria case management and prevention
  • Number of CSO members trained on case mangement and prevention of malaria
  • Number of Health care providers trained on pharmacovigilance

In order eventually to eliminate malaria detailed monitoring and surveillance data are needed in real time. Coordinating these data needs with a routine national HMIS will always be challenging because disease elimination is anything but a routine process.

ITNs &Malaria in Pregnancy &Monitoring &Treatment Bill Brieger | 12 Oct 2012

Tanzania, an example of the challenges of achieving malaria targets

malaria-indicators-in-tanzania-nets-sm.jpgPreliminary results of the Tanzania indicator survey for HIV and Malaria have been released. This makes it possible to track over time some of the basic indicators for success in malaria programming using various Demographic and Health as well as Malaria Indicator Surveys.  The trends recall concerns of more than a decade ago when USAID organized the Malaria Action Coalition to address the relative ‘neglect’ in malaria case management and malaria in pregnancy program components.  At least in Tanzania, ten years on, the problem persists.

We can see clear progress in insecticide treated net use by vulnerable populations over time. The push for universal coverage since 2009 seems to have paid off in Tanzania.  We hope this victory is sustainable, but more and more we are receiving reports that the duration of the long lasting aspect of LLINs is far from the hoped for 5 years.  Eighteen months is more realistic.

So after a major campaign to achieve the targets seen in the attached figure we have to ask whether Tanzania is positioned to do massive replacement, either through routine services like immunization programs and antenatal care, over the next several years.

A depressing finding is the last of progress in intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women as seen below.

  • 2008 – 30%
  • 2010 – 26%
  • 2012 – 32%

malaria-indicators-in-tanzania-act-child-sm.jpgReports over the years have singled out procurement and supply problems arising after Tanzania switched from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamin (SP) to ACTs as its first line antimalarial drug. SP fell off the radar in many places.  One wonders also what this says about Tanzania’s overall commitment to maternal health.

Case management is similarly in the doldrums. This is ironic because Tanzania was one of the beneficiaries of the Affordable Medicines Facility malaria (AMFm) pilot effort that was generally credited with enhancing access to quality malaria drugs.  Tanzania has also pioneered an accredited drug outlet program aimed at upgrading the quality of the typical patent medicine shop.

As is often the case, much soul searching is needed to look at the health systems – especially those delivering child health and maternal health services – to find the bottlenecks to this problem.  Neighboring countries like Rwanda that want to move toward pre-elimination will find it difficult if their neighbors fall behind in implementing the basic malaria interventions.

« Previous PageNext Page »