Posts or Comments 28 September 2021

Monthly Archive for "October 2016"



CHW &Diagnosis &iCCM Bill Brieger | 30 Oct 2016

Community health workers provide integrated community case management using malaria rapid diagnostic test kits

Please find below the abstract of the above named article that is first appearing as an accepted paper in the journal Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. The authors – Bright C. Orji, Namratha Rao, Elizabeth Thompson, William R. Brieger, Emmanuel
‘Dipo Otolorin – conducted this work as part of Jhpiego’s commitment to fighting malaria in Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Background: Throughout Nigeria malaria is an endemic disease. Efforts to treat malaria can also be combined with other illnesses including pneumonia and diarrhea, which are killing children under five years of age. The use of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) aids early  diagnosis of malaria and informs when other illnesses should be considered. Those with positive RDT results should be treated with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACTs), while those with negative RDTs results are further investigated for pneumonia and diarrhea.

Community Directed Distributor performs malaria rapid diagnostic test of febrile child

Community Directed Distributor performs malaria rapid diagnostic test of febrile child

Critical health systems challenges such as human resource constraints mean that community case management (CCM) and community health workers such as volunteers called Community Directed Distributors (CDDs) can therefore play an important role in diagnosing and treating malaria. This report described an effort to monitor and document the performance of trained CDDs in providing quality management of febrile illnesses including the use of RDTs.

Method: The program trained one hundred and fifty-two (152) CDDs on the use of RDTs to test for malaria and give ACTs for positive RDTs results, cotrimoxazole for the treatment of pneumonia and Oral rehydration solution and zinc for diarrhea They were also taught to counsel on compliance medicine, identify adverse reactions, and keep accurate records. The CDDs worked for 12 Calendar months. Their registers were retrieved and audited using a checklist to document client complaints, tests done, test results and treatment provided. No client identifying information was collected.

Results: There were 32 (21%) male CDDs and 120 (79%) females. The overall mean age of the CDDs was 36.8 (±8.7) years old. 89% of the male CDDs provided correct treatment based on RDT results compared to 97.6% of the female CDDs, a statistically significant difference. Likewise CDDs younger than 36 years of age provided 92.7% correct case management compared to those 36 years and older (98.4%). The difference between the age groups was also significant. There was a strong association between CDDs dispensing ACTs with positive RDT results. In RDT negative cases, the most common course of action was dispensing antibiotics (43.2%), followed by referring the patients (30.34%) and the providing ORS (24.1%).

Conclusion: Volunteer CDDs who are community members can adhere to treatment protocols and guidelines and comply with performance standards. The next step is scaling this approach to a state-wide level.

Accepted Date: 26 September 2016. Please cite this article as: Orji BC, Rao N, Thompson E, Brieger WR, ‘Dipo Otolorin E, Community health workers provide integrated community case management using malaria rapid diagnostic test kits, Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.09.006.

Advocacy &Announcement &Elimination Bill Brieger | 17 Oct 2016

Malaria Day in The Americas Forum

In commemoration of Malaria Day in the Americas 2016

The Pan American Health Organization, The UN Foundation, The Milken Institute School of Public Health at The George Washington University, and Center for Communication Programs at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Cordially invite you to attend the

“End Malaria for Good” Forum

Featuring videos, presentations and discussions on

The work of the ‘Malaria Champions of the Americas 2016’

malariaevite-2016-americasWHEN: Thursday, November 3, 2016, TIME: 1:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.

WHERE: Room B, PAHO Headquarters, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC—20037

RSVP: Please fill out the form at https://goo.gl/0oaPzX

Light refreshments will be served

Integrated Vector Management &ITNs &Ivermectin &NTDs Bill Brieger | 11 Oct 2016

Malaria, Lymphatic Filariasis and Insecticide-treated Nets

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Throughout Africa one of the main vectors that carry Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is the Anopheles mosquito, which also carries the malaria parasite. The Carter Center has been promoting use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for many years as part of its LF control efforts, but others may not have gotten the message.

The global community is targeting LF for elimination in 2020. The primary strategy is mass drug administration annually with ivermectin and albendazole. The plan is that up to seven annual rounds of drug distribution in endemic communities where 90% of population coverage is achieved is necessary to stop LF transmission. The Carter Center explains that distribution of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) protects pregnant women and children who cannot take drug treatment.

The LF strategy often builds on and integrates with onchocerciasis control efforts where these diseases overlap. The community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) model pioneered by the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control  (APOC), wherein communities or villages plan together the distribution process including selecting their own community directed distributors (CDDs). This model has also been used to distribute ITNs.

20160818_100110-1A second component of the LF strategy is morbidity management which focuses on enhanced personal hygiene or cleaning of the parts of the body that experience lymphedema. Another aspect uses surgery to address some of the worst effects, hydrocele.  While this component does not ‘control’ LF, it is a necessary effort to reduce suffering and the negative stigma from the disease.

To judge whether transmission has stopped and elimination has been achieved Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS) are conducted with rapid diagnostic tests on young children after at least 5 years of MDA in a community.  Specifically WHO recommends an implementation unit must have completed five effective rounds of annual MDA defined as achieving rates of drug coverage exceeding 65% in the total population.

For example the Carter Center in Support of the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health worked in Plateau and Nasarawa States through community health education, delivery of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and 33 million drug treatments for lymphatic filariasis and river blindness between 2000 and 2011. “In 2012, it was confirmed (through TAS) that lymphatic filariasis transmission had stopped. Post-treatment surveillance is currently underway to assure that the parasite is not reintroduced into the area.”

Another component of the assessment process is yet to be fully realized. That is the testing of mosquitoes for the presence of microfilariae. This indirectly implies an important role in preventing human-vector contact as would be achieved through the use of ITNs as well as indoor residual spray (IRS).

Vector control can benefit more than one disease. Integrated vector management is seen as a key tool to prevent reintroduction of LF in areas where anopheles mosquitoes carry the disease and where ITN campaigns are successful.

Ultimately the key to benefiting from the disease control synergies provided by insecticide-treated nets is an understanding what if any effect nets have on transmission. This poses a challenge in terms of separating it from the effect of MDAs as well as the fact that MDAs are time-limited. As MDAs are still underway in many places it is incumbent on program managers to monitor and evaluate the impact of all activities, treatment and vector control, over the next decade to determine the success of eliminating LF and hopefully malaria, too.

Drug Development &Ivermectin &NTDs Bill Brieger | 09 Oct 2016

Malaria, Onchocerciasis and Ivermectin – Possibility of Eliminating Two Diseases

Many tropical diseases are co-endemic in a given country and environment. Therefore, it only makes sense to learn whether there can be common strategies and synergies in disease control and elimination efforts. Onchocerciasis or River Blindness is carried by the black fly (simulium damnosum) that breeds along the banks of fast flowing rivers and malaria are examples.

Onchocerciasis was eliminated in many settings in the Sahel through the process or aerial spraying of these riverbanks to kill the black fly larvae. Though the insecticide used was often the same as used for malaria larviciding, the habitats differed and no synergies were achieved then.

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Merck donates ivermectin to achieve control and elimination of onchocerciasis

Through subsequent programs using community directed treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan ®) interventions sponsored by the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) it was learned that ivermectin also had beneficial effects on malaria transmission.

Ivermectin had been used in agriculture not only for internal parasites of animals. The agricultural community has long known that ivermectin kills both internal parasites (worms) but is also effective against some external parasites (lice and ticks).

Around 2010 scientists began to consider the anti-mosquito effects ivermectin might have when humans consumed it. It turns out that after a mass distribution in a community of ivermectin for onchocerciasis that mosquitoes feeding on people who had recently swallowed ivermectin would die. This was demonstrated when mosquitoes bit volunteers who took ivermectin of the first few days after consumption died there was no effect in the group not taking the drug.

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Ivermectin distribution sessions in a Cameroonian village

Of particular interest was the fact that people who had consumed ivermectin would contribute to mosquito mortality even when they were outdoors. While the effect was not long lasting, the onchocerciasis control programs in the Americas have shown that it is safe to administer the drug two or four times a year.

Research that looks at the malaria parasite concluded that, “it is likely that ivermectin treatment is arresting parasite growth.” The researchers note that, “given the prior use of ivermectin and its safety record in humans and animals, it can be considered in combination therapy with other antimalarials.” The issue of dosage would need to be tested further.  Ivermectin at sub-lethal concentrations even inhibits the sporogony of P. falciparum in An. Gambiae.

Because of the need to find new and complementary tools to eliminate malaria the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) of the World Health Organization’s Global Malaria Program considered at its recent meeting the role of endectocides including ivermectin in the future of malaria control and elimination and the importance of further research.

The future of malaria elimination requires finding new tools to integrate with and the strengthening of existing tools. If these efforts also benefit the control and elimination of other diseases, the public’s health will benefit.