Posts or Comments 18 April 2024

Chagas Disease &Climate &Leprosy &Malaria &NTDs &Vector Control &Zika Bill Brieger | 31 Jul 2023

Fighting NTDs at Home in the United States

The United States has been assisting in the fight against malaria and tropical diseases throughout the tropics. The question now arises is it ready to tackle these diseases on the home front?

In recent months CBS News reported that “Malaria cases in Florida and Texas are first locally acquired infections in U.S. in 20 years,” according to CDC. Local transmission of these 8 cases is the key concern because there are always imported cases from travelers to malaria endemic areas throughout the year. This has led to better planning of mosquito control activities. All of the Florida cases were found in Sarasota County. Although Anopheles mosquitoes still existed in the environment, they had not been infected in recent years.

Likewise Pensacola News Journal noted that, “Rising evidence is pointing to the possibility that leprosy has become endemic in the southeastern U.S. with Florida being named among the top reported states.” The paper explains that these Leprosy cases in central Florida account for nearly 20% of the national total, and that the state is considering instituting contact tracing.

Chagas disease may affect up to 300,000 people from Florida across to California, but an Emerging Pathogens Institute report shared in the Apopka Voice, explained that most cases remain undetected. While Chagas primarily affects people who have immigrated from Latin America, researchers are discovering locally acquired cases because the vector, the kissing bug, has been found in 29 states, and thus local transmission now occurs.

An article in PLoS NTDs explains that Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya viruses are spread in the southern and Gulf Coast states by members of the Aedes mosquito family, aided by changes in weather and climate patterns. Just as in other countries where NTDs are endemic, the US experience of these diseases also sees that, “poverty equates to substandard housing that exposes residents to insect vectors, a lack of access to sanitation and water, and degraded environments.”

Local, State and National health agencies in the US are starting to awaken to the fact that diseases which we thought were eliminated back in the mid-19th-century are making a comeback. At a minimum, funding and training are needed to equip our Health Departments with environmentally appropriate vector control measures, appropriate treatment regimens, and disease surveillance tools to tackle the same problems that are threatening the lives of people throughout low- and middle-income countries throughout the world.

Elimination &MDA &NTDs &poverty &Schistosomiasis &Trachoma &Vector Control Bill Brieger | 13 Jun 2023

Eliminating NTDs as a Public Health Problem May Not Be Enough

The concept and goal of eliminating a disease appears simple on the surface, but complications ensue when the words “as a public health problem” are added.  We know that the distinction exists between eradication and elimination with the former being globally and the latter being nationally or regionally. The sum total action of eliminating a disease from all endemic countries therefore results in total global eradication.

The challenge comes when we try to qualify the concept of elimination. The US CDC defined elimination of disease as, “Reduction to zero of the incidence of a specified disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required.” Thus, there is no more transmission.  Following from this eradication is defined as, “Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts; intervention measures are no longer needed.” Penn Medicine summarized this as, “Elimination means stopping the transmission of a disease in a specific geographic area or country, but not worldwide. Elimination is a crucial step in the path toward eradication, requiring constant monitoring and interventions to keep serious diseases at bay.”

The foregoing definitions seem straightforward, but what does elimination as a public health problem or a disease of public health concern mean? The World Health Organization recently “congratulate(d) Benin and Mali for eliminating trachoma as a public health problem. Concerning another neglected tropical disease (NTD), lymphatic filariasis (LF), global control programs are aiming “to reduce the prevalence of infection below target thresholds and to alleviate the suffering of people affected by lymphoedema and hydrocele.” Wiegand and colleagues in The Lancet Global Health note that, “For schistosomiasis, the criterion for elimination as a public health problem (EPHP) is defined as less than 1% prevalence of heavy-intensity infections (ie, ?50 Schistosoma haematobium eggs per 10 mL of urine or ?400 Schistosoma mansoni eggs per g of stool).” They take issue with the fact that such definitions mean that morbidity still exists, though at very levels, so elimination of transmission has not really occurred for any of these NTDs.

Because the social, environmental, and behavioral conditions that favor transmission may still exists, one cannot guarantee that incidence such diseases may not increase again. All three diseases, LF, Schistosomiasis, and Trachoma have been tackled primarily through preventive chemotherapy, is simply put, using mass drug administration (MDA) over a period of years until active surveillance determines that “infection (is) below target thresholds.” Trachoma does have its SAFE strategy which includes water, sanitation and hygiene interventions, but drugs can reduce the disease without long term achievements in such activities have become sustainable.

Prada et al. in the Journal of Infectious Diseases warn that there can be resurgence of a disease that was documented to be eliminated as a public health problem. They explain that the transmission assessment survey held after several MDA rounds for LF may not be enough to guarantee that low levels of transmission and eventual elimination are achieved. They conclude that, “The risk of resurgence after achieving current targets is low and is hard to predict using just current prevalence. Although resurgence is often quick (<5 years), it can still occur outside of the currently recommended post-intervention surveillance period of 4–6 years,” and recommend monitoring beyond this period.

Toor and co-researchers suggest for NTD programs that, “as case numbers drop and elimination comes into prospect, transmission reduction through other interventions, such as vector control and sanitation, becomes crucial in reducing the probability and speed of resurgence, particularly when MDA or screening programs are halted. Surveillance activities for detecting elimination and resurgence become increasingly important to ensure that successes are maintained.”

Ultimately, unless the context of NTD transmission is addressed, elimination will be an elusive goal. Therefore, as WHO advocated on the recent World NTD Day, “Everybody, including leaders and communities, to confront the inequalities that drive NTDs and to make bold, sustainable investments to free the world’s most vulnerable communities affected by NTDs from a vicious cycle of disease and poverty.”

Vaccine Bill Brieger | 14 May 2023

Tanzania needs malaria vaccines to reduce malaria burden

David Kanamugire has published a blog on the need to add the malaria vaccine to Tanzania’s arsenal of malaria elimination strategies. The original posting is found in the class blog for the Social & Cultural Basis for Community and Primary Health Programs class at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Below is his perspectives on the issue.

Malaria is still a major public health problem. In 2021, malaria killed an estimated 619,000 people – 95 percent of them in Africa. Children under the age of 5 accounted for 80 percent of Africa malaria deaths. Tanzania is among 4 countries that account for just over half of all global malaria deaths.

The country has significantly reduced malaria cases, from a prevalence of 18% in 2008 to 8.1% in 2022. This reduction is attributed to intervention such as Insecticide Treated bed Nets, Indoor Residual Spray, effective drugs and Malaria Rapid Diagnostic tests.

But recently the global progress on malaria has stalled and this could be due to emerging drug resistance, insecticide resistance and the spreading of invasive species Anopheles stephensi. For the past 3 years, the global malaria death remains above 600,000. Therefore there is need for new approaches to help in efforts to prevent and control malaria.

Photo: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Vaccines are safe and cost-effective way combat communicable diseases and improve health outcomes. One of malaria vaccine that have been approved by the WHO is R21. It was developed by Oxford and is produced at a large scale by the Serum Institute of India.

The R21 vaccine is cheap and can be easily produced thus making it ideal for Africa countries. The R21 is also effective against malaria as three initial doses followed by a booster give up to 80 percent protection against malaria.

commodities &Community &Essential Medicines &Primary Health Care Bill Brieger | 11 May 2023

Online Short Course: Essential Medicines, Commodities and Supplies

Essential Medicines, Commodities and Supplies Needed for Community Level Primary Health Care Interventions is our 2-credit online course offered from 5-9 June 2023 as part of the Global Health Systems Summer Institute. Please check the syllabus and share with colleagues.

Course Description” Essential commodities are among the 8 basic primary health care services and the 6 health systems building blocks as defined by the World Health Organization

Primary health care programs in low and middle-income countries require essential health commodities be made available at the community level. Logistic systems need to be developed to ensure that commodities are adequately estimated and delivered. In addition, systems for safely maintaining and monitoring stocks are needed at the community level.

The Summer Institute offers a variety of short-term courses in a variety of global health areas between 5-30 June 2023. The Global Health Systems Summer Institute provides early- and mid-career public health professionals with cutting-edge skills in a variety of global health topics. The Institute is also a great opportunity for part-time MPH and other Hopkins students and fellows to learn a valuable set of skills in an in-demand and rapidly growing field of public health. Below are issues covered in the Essential Medicines course.

  • Overview of Essential Medicines for Primary Health Care
  • Essential Medicines for Primary Health Care
  • Basic Primary Health Care Procurement and Logistics
  • Financing for Essential Medicines
  • Implementation of Essential Medicines Programs in Primary Health Care
  • Preventative Chemotherapy for Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • Ensuring Essential Pharmaceuticals Go “Beyond the End of the Road”
  • Supply Chains
  • The Role of Indigenous Medicine
  • Supply Chain Management for CDI: The Malaria Example
  • Logistics Management Information System in Community Based PHC
  • Community Mass Drug Distribution
  • The CDI Process: Expanding Beyond Ivermectin
  • Supply Chain Management in Ethiopia
  • Community Supply Chain Challenges in Nigeria

Borders &Conflict &COVID-19 &Ebola &Epidemic &One Health &Yellow Fever Bill Brieger | 10 May 2023

Outbreaks Emergency Preparedness And Response In Uganda

Solomon Afolabi, a graduating MPH student from the JHU Bloomberg School of Public Health examined the challenge of epidemics and outbreaks in Africa with special reference to Uganda as an example. The abstract of his report is found below.

According to the WHO, preparedness for emergency health conditions like infectious disease outbreaks should be an ongoing action supported by adequate funding, resources, partnerships, and political will that is executed at all levels to keep it sustained. Emergency preparedness is a framework that identifies practical in-country health emergency preparedness principles and elements by acknowledging lessons learned from previous response activities for priority planning, implementation, and reinforcing operational capacities.

Uganda is an ecological hotspot for various infectious diseases making the country liable to outbreaks. In the last two decades, multiple significant outbreaks have occurred, prominent of which are from yellow fever, Ebola virus disease, and COVID-19 global pandemic. Efforts to build a strategic framework for emergency outbreak preparedness and to strengthen the national operational capacity led to the establishment of the Ugandan National Institute of Public Health (UNIPH) in 2013.

This paper presents a blend of literature that takes account of the successes, challenges faced, and gaps identified in the preparedness and response capacities to the infectious disease outbreaks experienced in the last two decades. It also reviewed how the national efforts had fared in operational readiness for an emergency response to epidemics, building a resilient health system, practicing the One-Health human-animal-environment interface, and in government, community, and individual capacities to contribute effectively to strengthen the national emergency preparedness and response to these frequent disease outbreaks. The findings revealed that Uganda’s outbreak preparedness had made much progress over two decades, from the overwhelming Sudan strain Ebola virus outbreak in 2000-2001 to a similar episode from the same species in 2022 to 2023.

The response measures that feature the activation of a national response plan by the MoH were well coordinated locally to swiftly lead to the activation of NTF, NRRT, DTF, DRRT, and VHTs for immediate mobilization and deployment of operational resources to affected districts. The response was strengthened by well-organized local coordination by the MoH and development partners (WHO, CDC, UN agencies, etc.). The immediate setting up of treatment and isolation centers, provision of Ebola kits, training of more health workers, and coverage of 10 high-risk districts ensured a significant impact.

The provision of more than 5000 doses of vaccines with the support of WHO and partners was a global capacity milestone impact, and the country was declared Ebola-free in a record 69 days. Uganda’s current national emergency preparedness and response plan has received commendations locally and from global international partners, having progressively built capacity from lessons learned in just over a decade of responding to frequent infectious disease outbreaks and using the recommendations proffered accordingly.

This sustained momentum of preparedness supported the swift transition to contain COVID-19 and laid a good foundation for their strengthened readiness for an emergency response to outbreaks.

Innovation &Invest in Malaria Control &Vaccine &World Malaria Day &Zero Malaria Bill Brieger | 25 Apr 2023

World Malaria Day: Investing in Malaria Vaccines

World Malaria Day 2023 is focusing on three key themes, Investment, Innovation, and Implementation, the 3 I’s. The recently approved malaria vaccines and those still under development embody these themes fully.  They all represent decades of investment in innovation, research, and now implementation.

After extensive several decades of clinical research and three years of field implementation in Ghana, Malawi, and Kenya by the World Health Organization and National Malaria and Immunization Programs, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine is being rolled out with assistance of GAVI, the Global Vaccine Alliance. During the malaria vaccine implementation program (MVIP) and also based on GAVI’s philosophy for vaccine programs generally, a key strategy was to provide RTS,S as routine immunization services alongside other essential services including a comprehensive package of malaria control and elimination interventions. RTS,S is not only being made available to the three MVIP countries, but as supplies come on board, other falciparum malaria endemic countries have started to apply for supplies and funding through GAVI.

It was well known from the beginning that although RTS,s might be first out the gate, other vaccines would be following closely on its heels. The benefits as well as the efficacy limitations of RTS,S were well known.  Therefore, talk was common for new products being available by 2026. Now in 2023, countries have started to move ahead on another vaccine candidate.

BBC reported that “Ghana is the first country to approve a(nother) new malaria vaccine that has been described as a ‘world-changer’ by the scientists who developed it.” R21 appears to be more effective than its predecessor, so Ghana’s drug regulators moved ahead quickly using final trial data on the vaccine’s safety and effectiveness, which is not even public, to approve it. Interestingly, this move is in parallel to the World Health Organization’s consideration of approving the vaccine.  Shortly thereafter, Nigerian medicine regulators also approved R21. Reuters noted that these “approvals are unusual as they have come before the publication of final-stage trial data for the vaccine.” The actual roll out will ultimately depend on official publication of the safety data and sourcing of funds.

As mentioned above, these malaria vaccines represented considerable investment of time and resources, embody the kind of innovation that is needed to tackle malaria as drug and insecticide resistance threaten progress toward elimination, and require detailed planning right down to the grassroots levels to ensure that a malaria vaccine delivery is part of a comprehensive package of malaria and child health services.

We need to return to the theme of investment. While international organizations, universities, ministries of health, and of course pharmaceutical companies have been investing in developing a safe, effective, and feasible product, these innovative products will not save lives until funds are invested for both purchase and service delivery are guaranteed. GAVI and Partners have put together over $200 million in support for RTS,S implementation for three years. The first window was open in September 2022 for the initial three MVIP countries, and a second window for others, depending on available supplies was open in December 2022.

Investment FOR implementation is a challenging subject because GAVI and collaborating agencies are not a bottomless well of money. What level of national investment by a country to protect its own children is feasible? Is there the national political will to contribute and invest in children in endemic countries, and not continue depending heavily on donors?

Malaria vaccines are a perfect example of what the 3 I’s can achieve. But beyond celebrating this addition to the malaria elimination toolkit, will we also be celebrating commitments by endemic countries of local funds to make zero malaria a reality?

HPV &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 15 Mar 2023

Malawi Experiences HPV vaccination Shortages as Registration Increases Among Adolescents Girls

By Jordan Kerr and originally posted in the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care Blog.

Malawi is making strides in increasing HPV vaccinations among adolescent girls across the nation. Since the official implementation of the HPV vaccine program in 2019, 20 out of the 29 districts in Malawi have begun administering the vaccine to adolescent girls between the age of 9 and 14. Despite this success, Malawi continues to be one of the leading countries worldwide in cervical cancer-related mortality. New cases of cervical cancer in Malawi are reported at a rate five times higher than the global average.

This highly preventable disease places a more significant burden on low-income countries like Malawi due to poor access to healthcare services and resources. International agencies are improving their outreach efforts to reach girls not enrolled in school and address vaccine hesitancy in districts with higher vaccine refusal rates. Due to this outreach vaccine registration is improving however healthcare facilities are experiencing stockouts. In some districts, healthcare facilities are reporting that the main reason individuals are not receiving vaccinations is that they are running out of vaccine stocks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) set a goal in 2018 to eliminate cervical cancer by increasing HPV vaccination uptake globally. This initiative has shown to be successful in addressing disparities in low- and middle-income countries however, in 2020 an HPV vaccination shortage began and is expected to continue through 2025.

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) presents several strategies that can be used to address this shortage to keep on track with the goal to eliminate cervical cancer. Efforts must be taken to support facilities developing the HPV vaccine to ensure stockouts do not continue. We need policymakers to lobby for policies that increase funding for vaccination development and establish priority vaccination allocations to countries like Malawi that are experiencing high mortality rates from cervical cancer

Schistosomiasis &water Bill Brieger | 15 Mar 2023

Effective Strategies to Eliminate Schistosomiasis in School Children in Rural Parts of Ghana

By Lauren Koranteng and originally posted in the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care Blog. “Overcoming poverty is not a task of charity, it is an act of justice. Like Slavery and Apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings. Sometimes it falls on a generation to be great. You can be that great generation. Let your greatness blossom.” – Nelson Mandela According to the World Health Organization, Schistosomiasis is a “disease of poverty that leads to chronic ill-health “. It is caused by a parasitic worm that lives in freshwater snails. The larval forms of the parasite is released by the snails. Humans who make contact with the water during various activities like recreation, agriculture and also for livelihood get infected. The prevalence rate in Ghana is 23.3% , however there are some areas that have localized prevalence levels that are >50% ( Kulinkina et al). A vulnerable population that is often infected are school aged children who access the waters mostly for recreational reasons (Antwi et al). These are usually school aged children who live in hard to reach areas in the country with poor sanitation. It is important for the disease to be controlled because chronic ill health also impacts the cognitive abilities of the children. Praziquantel is a drug used for preventative chemotherapy against Schistosomiasis. It offers a solution to eradication of the disease and could be executed through drug administration of praziquantel through the school system. This kind of mass administration has been done before in the country, but unfortunately, the behavior of children swimming in these infected waters did not change. This behavior of continuous exposure of children to these water bodies presented a limited factor in the eradication of this disease and intervention. Using the national health insurance program in the country, praziquantel can be made available again but through school programs in these rural areas.  Additionally, the school curriculum can include health education that will encourage children to avoid fresh water bodies where possible. Sanitation improvement and reduced human and infected water contact will also be a priority health development goal. So, in working with stakeholders such as the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Education, a realistic plan can be developed and executed.  This can include a mass drug administration program, health education and sanitation improvement.  This may be reasonable interventions to use to support children who are in contact with fresh water bodies and at a high risk of contracting Schistosomiasis.

Children &Mortality &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 14 Mar 2023

THE RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE: A Solution to Nigeria’s Constant Public Health Crisis

By Blessing George & Chino Nduaka and originally posted in the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care Blog.

https://www.everydayhealth.com/malaria/world-health-organization-approves-first-malaria-vaccine/

More than 50% of deaths from malaria are from four African countries, and Nigeria heads the list, contributing a significant part at more than 30%. Nigeria faces a major public health burden, with an estimated 65 million cases and over 100,000 deaths in 2021, representing over 50% of malaria cases in West Africa. With most outpatient visits in Nigeria being caused by malaria, this disease has taken a toll on the economy. Malaria is among the top five causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Over the years, various organizations have joined hands in the fight against this deadly disease. However, Nigeria remains at the top of the list contributing significantly to the mortality rate. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying, and free sharing of anti-malaria drugs for prophylaxis and treatment constitute ways the country has tackled the disease burden. With the funding allocation repeatedly given by international organizations such as the WHO, the World Bank, and the Global Fund channeled to these interventions that have proved somewhat ineffective, we are at crossroads that begs the question, what next? In 2016, the world’s pioneer malaria vaccine, RTS, S, sold with the brand name, Mosquirix, was introduced for pilot implementation in three malaria-endemic countries. It has been administered to over a million children with positive results on its effectiveness. In 2022, the Nigerian government officially applied to receive the vaccine through GAVI but was hit back with the response that currently, there is an insufficient supply of vaccines. Nigeria tops the list of the global malaria mortality rate and should be prioritized. The Nigerian Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Nigerian Primary Healthcare agency, needs to fight for the health of its citizens, respond to GAVI, and state the concrete reasons why the country should be prioritized. The goal is to ensure that these vaccines are made available for the under-5 population in Nigeria by 2025 such that in the malaria world report of 2030, Nigeria should not be named a major contributing country to malaria mortality.

Typhoid &water Bill Brieger | 14 Mar 2023

Typhoid fever in Lagos, Nigeria

By Peace Ige, and originally posted in the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care Blog.

In Nigeria, typhoid fever continues to be a significant disease, and its prevalence is on the rise. The disease is transmitted through the oral consumption of contaminated food or water and can also be spread through personal contact due to unsanitary practices (Enabulele et al., 2016). The increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacteria makes treating typhoid fever challenging. The lack of proper surveillance, limited laboratory capacity, and inadequate data availability in Nigeria make it difficult to assess the actual prevalence of typhoid fever.

There needs to be more reliable and consistent data on the incidence of typhoid fever in Lagos and Nigeria, making it challenging to assess the disease’s prevalence accurately. This under-reporting is due to several reasons, including using antibiotics before confirmatory laboratory tests and patients’ failure to seek medical attention, as laboratory services are often not affordable (Enabulele et al., 2016).

According to a study published in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (primary article), the lack of epidemiological data tracking regarding typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to call for a continent-wide approach to generate more accurate disease incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility data in 2008. The study emphasizes the importance of antibiotic resistance as a significant health security issue, as S. Typhi has developed resistance to multiple drugs, making it difficult to treat.

Typhoid fever remains endemic in Lagos, Nigeria, and the larger sub-Saharan Africa region, posing a significant public health challenge. To address this issue, coordinated efforts are needed from all stakeholders. Strengthening surveillance systems to collect accurate data on typhoid fever incidence, prevalence, and antimicrobial susceptibility is critical (Enabulele et al., 2016). This requires government funding to improve laboratory infrastructure and trained personnel. Accessible data can guide policy decisions and interventions. Improving sanitation and hygiene practices is also vital to combating typhoid fever.

The government should invest in improving access to potable water, wastewater management systems, and community education on personal hygiene practices. Public and private sector partnerships can be established to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in vulnerable communities. Increased vaccination campaigns are a cost-effective intervention in reducing the incidence of typhoid fever. The Nigerian government should increase the coverage of the typhoid fever vaccine in Lagos state, especially for vulnerable populations such as children and those in low-income communities.

A robust public health campaign should promote vaccine uptake and raise awareness of typhoid fever and its causes. A multi-sectoral approach is needed to address the root causes of typhoid fever in Lagos. Collaboration between the government, healthcare providers, the private sector, and other stakeholders is necessary to ensure the implementation of effective interventions. Advocacy efforts are necessary to ensure political commitment and support for policies addressing typhoid fever in Lagos. By implementing these strategies, Lagos can reduce the incidence and impact of typhoid fever on its population.

Lagos, Nigeria, must take responsibility for addressing the issue of typhoid fever and external support. The World Health Organization (WHO) has already called for a continental approach to generate accurate disease incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility data, and Nigeria must take advantage of this support. One of the critical areas where external support is essential is strengthening the healthcare system’s capacity for surveillance and diagnosis of typhoid fever. This includes improving laboratory facilities and providing training for healthcare workers.

Support from organizations such as WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can help develop effective policies and programs to control the spread of typhoid fever. Another area where external support is critical is promoting research into new and effective treatments for typhoid fever. This includes developing new antibiotics and vaccines and studying the disease’s epidemiology and ecology to understand better how it spreads and can be prevented.

External support is essential in helping to raise awareness of the issue of typhoid fever and its impact on public health in Nigeria. By working with local communities and stakeholders, external organizations can help to educate people about the disease, how it is spread, and how it can be prevented. This can create a sense of urgency around the issue and mobilize local communities and governments to take action.

The bluish line in the graph shows the rate of S. Typhi that can resist ampicillin. The orange line shows Chlora6mphenicol-resistant S. Typhi. Co-trimoxazole-resistant Staphylococcus typhi prevalence is shown by the gray line. S. the yellow line shows Typhi tetracycline resistance. The dark blue line shows the proportion of S. Typhi resistant to ciprofloxacin. The green line shows cefuroxime-resistant S. Typhi.

In 2003, cefuroxime entered clinical use. The red line shows the proportion of S. Typhi strains resistant to cefotaxime. In 2008, cefotaxime was made available to the public. In conclusion, typhoid fever remains a significant public health issue in Lagos, Nigeria. The persistence of the disease can be attributed to poor surveillance, inadequate data availability, restricted laboratory capacity, and resource and financial limitations that contribute to poor quality water, sanitation, and hygiene infrastructure.

The adoption of proper measures can significantly reduce the incidence of typhoid fever in Lagos. The Lagos State Government and stakeholders in Nigeria must show more commitment and will to provide the necessary means to combat the endemic disease. The involvement of external forces such as WHO, CDC, and other international organizations in promoting the eradication of the disease is essential. Their support in generating more accurate disease incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility data, improving laboratory capacity, and providing resources for disease surveillance and control is a significant step toward eradicating the disease.”

All stakeholders must work together to ensure the necessary measures are taken to end the endemic disease. With proper measures in place, we can significantly reduce the incidence of typhoid fever in Lagos, Nigeria, and ultimately eradicate the disease.

Ref.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924394/

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