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Archive for "Vaccine"



Vaccine Bill Brieger | 14 May 2023

Tanzania needs malaria vaccines to reduce malaria burden

David Kanamugire has published a blog on the need to add the malaria vaccine to Tanzania’s arsenal of malaria elimination strategies. The original posting is found in the class blog for the Social & Cultural Basis for Community and Primary Health Programs class at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Below is his perspectives on the issue.

Malaria is still a major public health problem. In 2021, malaria killed an estimated 619,000 people – 95 percent of them in Africa. Children under the age of 5 accounted for 80 percent of Africa malaria deaths. Tanzania is among 4 countries that account for just over half of all global malaria deaths.

The country has significantly reduced malaria cases, from a prevalence of 18% in 2008 to 8.1% in 2022. This reduction is attributed to intervention such as Insecticide Treated bed Nets, Indoor Residual Spray, effective drugs and Malaria Rapid Diagnostic tests.

But recently the global progress on malaria has stalled and this could be due to emerging drug resistance, insecticide resistance and the spreading of invasive species Anopheles stephensi. For the past 3 years, the global malaria death remains above 600,000. Therefore there is need for new approaches to help in efforts to prevent and control malaria.

Photo: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Vaccines are safe and cost-effective way combat communicable diseases and improve health outcomes. One of malaria vaccine that have been approved by the WHO is R21. It was developed by Oxford and is produced at a large scale by the Serum Institute of India.

The R21 vaccine is cheap and can be easily produced thus making it ideal for Africa countries. The R21 is also effective against malaria as three initial doses followed by a booster give up to 80 percent protection against malaria.

Innovation &Invest in Malaria Control &Vaccine &World Malaria Day &Zero Malaria Bill Brieger | 25 Apr 2023

World Malaria Day: Investing in Malaria Vaccines

World Malaria Day 2023 is focusing on three key themes, Investment, Innovation, and Implementation, the 3 I’s. The recently approved malaria vaccines and those still under development embody these themes fully.  They all represent decades of investment in innovation, research, and now implementation.

After extensive several decades of clinical research and three years of field implementation in Ghana, Malawi, and Kenya by the World Health Organization and National Malaria and Immunization Programs, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine is being rolled out with assistance of GAVI, the Global Vaccine Alliance. During the malaria vaccine implementation program (MVIP) and also based on GAVI’s philosophy for vaccine programs generally, a key strategy was to provide RTS,S as routine immunization services alongside other essential services including a comprehensive package of malaria control and elimination interventions. RTS,S is not only being made available to the three MVIP countries, but as supplies come on board, other falciparum malaria endemic countries have started to apply for supplies and funding through GAVI.

It was well known from the beginning that although RTS,s might be first out the gate, other vaccines would be following closely on its heels. The benefits as well as the efficacy limitations of RTS,S were well known.  Therefore, talk was common for new products being available by 2026. Now in 2023, countries have started to move ahead on another vaccine candidate.

BBC reported that “Ghana is the first country to approve a(nother) new malaria vaccine that has been described as a ‘world-changer’ by the scientists who developed it.” R21 appears to be more effective than its predecessor, so Ghana’s drug regulators moved ahead quickly using final trial data on the vaccine’s safety and effectiveness, which is not even public, to approve it. Interestingly, this move is in parallel to the World Health Organization’s consideration of approving the vaccine.  Shortly thereafter, Nigerian medicine regulators also approved R21. Reuters noted that these “approvals are unusual as they have come before the publication of final-stage trial data for the vaccine.” The actual roll out will ultimately depend on official publication of the safety data and sourcing of funds.

As mentioned above, these malaria vaccines represented considerable investment of time and resources, embody the kind of innovation that is needed to tackle malaria as drug and insecticide resistance threaten progress toward elimination, and require detailed planning right down to the grassroots levels to ensure that a malaria vaccine delivery is part of a comprehensive package of malaria and child health services.

We need to return to the theme of investment. While international organizations, universities, ministries of health, and of course pharmaceutical companies have been investing in developing a safe, effective, and feasible product, these innovative products will not save lives until funds are invested for both purchase and service delivery are guaranteed. GAVI and Partners have put together over $200 million in support for RTS,S implementation for three years. The first window was open in September 2022 for the initial three MVIP countries, and a second window for others, depending on available supplies was open in December 2022.

Investment FOR implementation is a challenging subject because GAVI and collaborating agencies are not a bottomless well of money. What level of national investment by a country to protect its own children is feasible? Is there the national political will to contribute and invest in children in endemic countries, and not continue depending heavily on donors?

Malaria vaccines are a perfect example of what the 3 I’s can achieve. But beyond celebrating this addition to the malaria elimination toolkit, will we also be celebrating commitments by endemic countries of local funds to make zero malaria a reality?

HPV &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 15 Mar 2023

Malawi Experiences HPV vaccination Shortages as Registration Increases Among Adolescents Girls

By Jordan Kerr and originally posted in the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care Blog.

Malawi is making strides in increasing HPV vaccinations among adolescent girls across the nation. Since the official implementation of the HPV vaccine program in 2019, 20 out of the 29 districts in Malawi have begun administering the vaccine to adolescent girls between the age of 9 and 14. Despite this success, Malawi continues to be one of the leading countries worldwide in cervical cancer-related mortality. New cases of cervical cancer in Malawi are reported at a rate five times higher than the global average.

This highly preventable disease places a more significant burden on low-income countries like Malawi due to poor access to healthcare services and resources. International agencies are improving their outreach efforts to reach girls not enrolled in school and address vaccine hesitancy in districts with higher vaccine refusal rates. Due to this outreach vaccine registration is improving however healthcare facilities are experiencing stockouts. In some districts, healthcare facilities are reporting that the main reason individuals are not receiving vaccinations is that they are running out of vaccine stocks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) set a goal in 2018 to eliminate cervical cancer by increasing HPV vaccination uptake globally. This initiative has shown to be successful in addressing disparities in low- and middle-income countries however, in 2020 an HPV vaccination shortage began and is expected to continue through 2025.

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) presents several strategies that can be used to address this shortage to keep on track with the goal to eliminate cervical cancer. Efforts must be taken to support facilities developing the HPV vaccine to ensure stockouts do not continue. We need policymakers to lobby for policies that increase funding for vaccination development and establish priority vaccination allocations to countries like Malawi that are experiencing high mortality rates from cervical cancer

Children &Mortality &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 14 Mar 2023

THE RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE: A Solution to Nigeria’s Constant Public Health Crisis

By Blessing George & Chino Nduaka and originally posted in the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care Blog.

https://www.everydayhealth.com/malaria/world-health-organization-approves-first-malaria-vaccine/

More than 50% of deaths from malaria are from four African countries, and Nigeria heads the list, contributing a significant part at more than 30%. Nigeria faces a major public health burden, with an estimated 65 million cases and over 100,000 deaths in 2021, representing over 50% of malaria cases in West Africa. With most outpatient visits in Nigeria being caused by malaria, this disease has taken a toll on the economy. Malaria is among the top five causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Over the years, various organizations have joined hands in the fight against this deadly disease. However, Nigeria remains at the top of the list contributing significantly to the mortality rate. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying, and free sharing of anti-malaria drugs for prophylaxis and treatment constitute ways the country has tackled the disease burden. With the funding allocation repeatedly given by international organizations such as the WHO, the World Bank, and the Global Fund channeled to these interventions that have proved somewhat ineffective, we are at crossroads that begs the question, what next? In 2016, the world’s pioneer malaria vaccine, RTS, S, sold with the brand name, Mosquirix, was introduced for pilot implementation in three malaria-endemic countries. It has been administered to over a million children with positive results on its effectiveness. In 2022, the Nigerian government officially applied to receive the vaccine through GAVI but was hit back with the response that currently, there is an insufficient supply of vaccines. Nigeria tops the list of the global malaria mortality rate and should be prioritized. The Nigerian Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Nigerian Primary Healthcare agency, needs to fight for the health of its citizens, respond to GAVI, and state the concrete reasons why the country should be prioritized. The goal is to ensure that these vaccines are made available for the under-5 population in Nigeria by 2025 such that in the malaria world report of 2030, Nigeria should not be named a major contributing country to malaria mortality.

coronavirus &COVID-19 &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 25 Aug 2022

COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Is Rising In Ghana: Time To Take Action

Andaratu Wuni has contributed this posting to the Blog site for the JHU site for the course Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is vaccine-hesitancy-word-cloud800.jpg(Graphic source: https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20210429vacchesitancy.html)

Covid 19 has unarguably wrecked devastating consequences globally since its emergence and has proven to to be a ubiquitous public health health problem. Vaccination against the virus has been shown to be the most effective way of limiting severe disease and mortality. However the spate of vaccine hesitancy in Ghana has continued to rise in the last year. The World Health Organization defines vaccine hesitancy as the delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. This public health problem has far reaching consequences not only in Ghana but globally. Currently the vaccine hesitancy rate in Ghana is about 30% and counting! with people 25 years and under leading the hesitancy core.

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(Graph Source: https://figshare.com/articles/thesis/Examining_drivers_of_COVID-19_vaccine_hesitancy_in_Ghana/14494851)

Since Ghana rolled out vaccines to the general public over one year ago, only 25.9% of the population have been fully vaccinated as of August 19,2022.Ghana has a target of vaccinating 22.9million eligible Ghanaians; that is about 60% of the population in order to achieve herd immunity, however only 8.2 million Ghanaians have been fully vaccinated to date.

Many reasons account for the rise in covid 19 vaccine hesitancy in Ghana; from the depletion of rigorous and continuous education and the consequent lack of community engagement, relaxation of covid 19 protocols, to vaccine misinformation and conspiracy theories as well as political influence. It is time for a policy that will mitigate this crucial problem, which the WHO(before the covid pandemic) described as one of the top ten greatest threats to global health.

The truth is, a single policy may not totally solve the problem as the issue of vaccine hesitancy is a complex one. The best approach will be for policymakers to enact policies to make vaccination a condition for other essential services in Ghana.

Intensify mandatory vaccination especially in high risk individuals and high risk locations, eliminate vaccine exemptions based on all but health related reasons, commit to structured community engagements and outreaches using the key stakeholders like the Ghana Medical Association and the Public Health association of Ghana, use stakeholders like UNICEF Ghana and the Ghana Health Service to disseminate accurate and scientifically proven vaccine information and last but not least introduce incentives for citizens who take the vaccine.

Dengue &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 23 Aug 2022

Dengue vaccines in Singapore – a luxury or a necessity?

Edwin Chng has contributed this posting to the Blog site for the JHU site for the course Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is mosquito.jpgDengue has been endemic in Singapore for many decades, with all four dengue serotypes (DENV-1-4) in active circulation. It presents a significant impact on the economy, with the financial burden of dengue estimated to be US$1.04 billion from 2010 to 2020. (Mosquito Photo credit: http://bitly.ws/twG2)

Despite aggressive conventional vector control measures such as fogging and breeding site elimination, Singapore continues to have persistent outbreaks annually. The number of cases in recent years have also surged. From January to July 2022, 9 deaths and 22,468 cases have been reported thus far – the latter number is more than 4 times the number of cases reported in the whole of 2021. Dengue cases is likely to continue to increase, as the traditional peak dengue season in the country is from June to October each year. (Dengue Cases Graph Photo credit: NEA)

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Singapore’s dengue crisis can be attributed to climate change and a recent change in the prevailing serotype. In the past, the dominant strains in Singapore were DENV-1 and DENV-2, hence the Singapore population has lower immunity to the other two strains. As a result, a large proportion of the population remains susceptible to DENV-3, which is emerging as the dominant strain in Singapore.

As such, as per the World Health Organization, dengue vaccination remains an integral part of dengue prevention and control strategy. The vaccine has an efficacy of about 80% against the outcomes of infection, hospitalization and severe infection which is potentially lethal. Unfortunately, the Singapore government has decided not to include it in the national immunization program, hence it is not eligible for government subsidy. As a result, the vaccine which costs a hefty USD450 remains inaccessible to the This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is denguevaccine.jpgaverage Singaporean. (Vaccine Photo credit: http://bitly.ws/twGk).

Various stakeholders including the National Center for Infectious Diseases, primary care physicians and pharmaceutical companies can rally and work together in awareness campaigns and clinical studies. Health economics data from such collaborations can confirm the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines and positively influence the government to consider a change in its existing policy to provide subsidies. Increasing its accessibility and affordability to more Singaporeans will definitely contribute significantly to the fight against dengue in Singapore.

 

Cancer &Community &HPV &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 23 Aug 2022

Stop Cervical Cancer: Promote HPV Vaccination in Kenya

Lisa Marie Clark has contributed this posting to the Blog site for the JHU site for the course Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care.

Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of death for Kenyan women. Every day, 9 women die from cervical cancer alone in Kenya. HPV vaccination reduces the risk dramatically, particularly for HPV types 16 and 18, which may be responsible for up to 70% of cervical cancers.

Optimal vaccination is in early adolescence starting at age 10, before sexual activity begins. In 2020, uptake of the HPV vaccine in Kenya was low, with only 33% of the target population receiving the first dose and only 16% percent receiving a second dose.  Low uptake may be due to a variety of factors including misinformation, lack of access, and low supply of vaccines.

In 2019, the Kenyan Ministry of Health began including the HPV vaccine in the routine vaccination schedule. The vaccine, with support from GAVI, the vaccine alliance, is offered free of charge. However, the Catholic Church and medical professional groups influenced by religious ideology have been a major opponent to vaccine uptake. The Kenya Catholic Doctors’ Association has been vocal about urging parents to promote abstinence over vaccination, equating HPV vaccination with permission to engage in sexual activities. See vaccination from Republic of Kenya’s Ministry of Health in photo.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is hD-33n0HRIC3nk5MFEAGMj8-5yoZOZB010xICtXA0I369kfz70j7dkNDxeUms3y96gGDjlHNZHdTrUA3B0Zb6HtrqvGIITz4WBlaXzXpWO-cwnw0I8rmmtOxZh_n3WqHwwmMO6Jw-d9Xf4YJdaVUCj0In the face of such obstacles to vaccine uptake, more funding is needed to strengthen Kenya’s vaccination campaign, with a focus on building trust and strengthening partnerships with faith leaders to improve vaccine uptake. With more funding from GAVI and improved community engagement vaccination rates would improve, HPV infection rates would decrease, and lives would be saved as a result.

coronavirus &Ebola &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 13 Jul 2022

Malaria and Tropical Health Update for 6-13 July 2022

Please see some excerpts from recent news/media reports on COVID-19, Malaria, Marburg Virus, Ebola, Microplastics and more. Follow links for full articles.

Channels TV reports that Nigeria has confirmed 357 new cases of COVID-19 amid the wave of fresh infections resurging in parts of the country. The number of new cases has continued to rise as authorities have yet to restore the relaxed measures initially put in place to curb the spread of the disease. In a tweet on Tuesday, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) explained that the fresh infections were confirmed between July 9 and 11. These cases, it stated, were reported in five states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

BioNTech to take malaria vaccine into clinical trials later this year as reported on 12-Jul-2022 By Rachel Arthur. BioNTech is readying to take its mRNA malaria vaccine candidates into clinical trials later this year.

Mzuzah Webinar on “The Effects of Microplastics on Human Health” on Tuesday, July 26, 2022 from 10:00 AM to 12:00 PM CDT. Mzuzah Africa is a multidimensional platform, which connects stakeholders from key sectors in the sustainability discourse. These dialogues are essential to ensure the development of Sustainable Leadership with highly skilled, right-thinking individuals leading the transformational movement in Africa.

Faced with COVID and monkeypox, new USAID leader draws strength from African proverb. From NPR July 11, 2022. Dr. Atul Gawande began a challenging new job this year. The surgeon, former New Yorker staff writer and bestselling author of books like Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End, is now the head of global health for the U.S. Agency for International Development, which provides foreign and humanitarian aid around the world. So far it’s been quite a daunting year. The pandemic has of course continued and cases are now surging in many countries. Then there’s the worldwide monkeypox outbreak, the potential global repercussions of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe v. Wade, and other health crises that have arisen in the wake of the pandemic. Gawande spoke to NPR about the agency’s top health priorities in low-income countries.

On July 11, 2022 Jessica Nye wrote that Ebola Reduces Visual Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients. Survivors of EVD and their close contacts were found to have poor health- and vision-related quality of life, especially among children with one or more ocular complications. Shantha JG, Canady D, Hartley C, et al. Ophthalmic sequelae and psychosocial impact in pediatric ebola survivors. EClinicalMedicine. 2022;49:101483. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101483

The Express (UK) reported that Marburg Virus, an Ebola-like virus with 88% death rate has hit Ghana as fever sparks ‘serious concern’ AN OUTBREAK of a deadly virus similar to Ebola, called Marburg, has been identified in Ghana, as two people were diagnosed with the highly contagious disease after they had died. Vassia Barba wrote on Jul 8, 2022. The World Health Organization (WHO) said on Thursday “preparations for a possible outbreak response are being set up swiftly as further investigations are underway”. In a statement, the WHO said preliminary assessment of samples from the two patients indicate the cases were positive for Marburg. However, it clarified those results must be confirmed by a laboratory in Senegal.

FutureLearn is offering an online course, The Resistant Mosquito: Staying Ahead of the Game in the Fight against Malaria. Discover how we can keep the upper hand in our fight against the malaria mosquito by managing insecticide resistance development. This course will be available on FutureLearn from 25 July 2022. The link to the course will follow on July 25th.

Development &poverty &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 28 Apr 2022

African Immunization Week Press Briefing: Reducing Poverty, Saving Lives

The World Health Organization’s African Regional Office held a press briefing to mark World Immunization Week/African Immunization Week. Three experts shared their observations of developments and trends and responded to questions over the course of an hour on Thursday 28th April. The panelists included Dr Benido Impouma, Director, Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases, WHO Regional Office for Africa, Professor Helen Rees, Executive Director, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa, and Hon. Dr Kailash Jagutpal, Minister of Health and Wellness, Government of Mauritius. In addition, Dr. Mory Keita answered questions about the latest Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Concerns about COVID-19 featured in this immunization briefing for several reasons. First was the low coverage of COVID vaccines on the continent. Second was the way that COVID put demands on health workers’ time as well as on precautions to be undertaken, which limited the reach and coverage of immunization services for other vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Also, the resulting reduction in immunization coverage was responsible for other deadly outbreaks, notably measles. Between January and March 2022, for example, there was a 400% increase in measles cases compared to the same period last year.

Dr. Impouma that COVID ‘taught the lesson’ that catch-up campaigns for VPDs were not only necessary but could be handled successfully. Finally, health services learned the importance of integration, whether joining COVID and Yellow Fever vaccination efforts in Ghana or integrating COVID with maternal and child services and immunizations. Ultimately, health workers learned that by strengthening ‘routine’ immunization, health systems overall could be strengthened thus, making progress on achieving Health For all through Universal Health Coverage.

Dr. Jagutpal shared key considerations for successful life-course immunization programs. Mauritius offers free, universal vaccination from birth. Thirty VPDs are addressed ranging from Human Papilloma Virus to flu and not of course, COVID-19. Success is based on involvement of all stakeholders through regular meetings where real time decisions can be made. Mauritius in one of the first to formalize the COVID Vaccine Pass Card and has achieved 60% full vaccine coverage including booster shots.

Prof Rees noted that the term ‘routine services’ makes vaccines seem boring and less important, when in fact, they should be seen as “Core Services”. This central role of vaccines goes beyond preventing specific diseases. By saving children’s lives and reducing the time demands on parents who care for children suffering VPDs, immunization promotes human development, reduces poverty, enhances the economy, and strengthens employment. There remain children who have had no vaccines. Identifying these ‘zero dose’ children and the communities in which they cluster can help us focus on ameliorating the vulnerabilities of their families and bring multi-sectoral resources to bear on strengthening poor communities.

Dr Keita reviewed the two recent cases, now deaths from Ebola in Équateur Province in DRC, its third EVD outbreak. Ebola vaccine teams have started working, reaching 78 contacts. He lamented that much of the DRC has a natural ecological predisposition for the animal reservoirs of Ebola, so more effort on making regular vaccines and treatment available is required. As Prof Rees pointed out, this setting is a perfect example of the need for a One Health approach to many of our health challenges which are zoonotic in nature. Even with coronaviruses, animal reservoirs are a central element of transmission.

Additional research is recommended in several areas. The slowly increasing laboratory capacity in Africa was mentioned. It contributed to finding Omicron and its variants. Potential new ones may have been identified recently. Seropositivity analysis has found that 80-90% of people tested may already have COVID antibodies. Research can clarify the role of vaccines in these circumstances. Research as well as regular program monitoring is still needed to determine the factors that may cause children to miss vaccines. It is often not the case that parents are ‘hesitant’, but that system and community factors combine to prevent them from seeking care. Research can also assist in finding vaccines and tools for tackling other deadly pathogens such as Lassa Fever.

Vaccines save lives from endemic diseases, but in the long-term vaccinated families and communities can fight poverty which itself is a leading factor in illness and death. This will accomplish the theme of this year’s observance, “Long Life for All.

Advocacy &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 25 Apr 2022

World Immunization Week Starts with World Malaria Day

One might think initially that the convergence of World Malaria Day and World Immunization Week would simply be a coincidence. This year there is a major connection since WHO has approved the first ever RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine which has undergone decades to clinical testing and most recently, a successful 3-year pilot intervention in Malawi, Kenya, and Ghana.

During her keynote address at the Johns Hopkins Malaria Institute’s World Malaria Day Webinar today, The WHO Regional Director for the African Region, Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, stressed the importance of integrated disease control efforts drawing on the region’s efforts to tackle neglected tropical diseases, COVID-19 and of course, malaria. She highlighted the importance of surveillance, and in That context pointed out a serious fact. The population of sub-Saharan Africa had doubled since the start of the Roll Back Malaria initiative, meaning that to achieve the same level of coverage of key interventions, one needs to reach many more people, whether for malaria control or child immunization.

Thus, increasing targets and goals affect both immunization and malaria programs, as well as efforts to roll out the malaria vaccine. At present there is only one producer of the vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline, and while that company is working with another company in India to produce RTS,S in the global south, GSK is maintaining control of the AS01 adjuvant. Production targets have so far been geared to meeting the needs in the pilot districts of the three intervention countries, and for the foreseeable future this will address less than 10% of need in P. falciparum endemic areas, especially in Africa.

WHO and partners including UNICEF and GAVI are in the process of figuring out equitable ways to distribute what is available now and encouraging the ramp up of vaccine production. The need to vaccine technology transfer to Africa is also being considered. Additionally, eyes are focused on new malaria vaccine candidates which might come on board in about five years.

The current malaria vaccine, while reducing severe disease, does not have the highest efficacy, and experts caution that is is therefore, not a silver bullet. They do explain that the vaccine is an important addition to the malaria toolkit, and should be a central part of integrated malaria control planning. At present though, we are not only running in place to meet the needs of an ever increasing number of children at risk, and we also must cope in an ethical and efficient way with limited supplies of the vaccine for the near future. This is the double challenge to start Malaria Day and Vaccine Week.

 

 

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