Posts or Comments 27 February 2024

Archive for "Epidemic"



Borders &Conflict &COVID-19 &Ebola &Epidemic &One Health &Yellow Fever Bill Brieger | 10 May 2023

Outbreaks Emergency Preparedness And Response In Uganda

Solomon Afolabi, a graduating MPH student from the JHU Bloomberg School of Public Health examined the challenge of epidemics and outbreaks in Africa with special reference to Uganda as an example. The abstract of his report is found below.

According to the WHO, preparedness for emergency health conditions like infectious disease outbreaks should be an ongoing action supported by adequate funding, resources, partnerships, and political will that is executed at all levels to keep it sustained. Emergency preparedness is a framework that identifies practical in-country health emergency preparedness principles and elements by acknowledging lessons learned from previous response activities for priority planning, implementation, and reinforcing operational capacities.

Uganda is an ecological hotspot for various infectious diseases making the country liable to outbreaks. In the last two decades, multiple significant outbreaks have occurred, prominent of which are from yellow fever, Ebola virus disease, and COVID-19 global pandemic. Efforts to build a strategic framework for emergency outbreak preparedness and to strengthen the national operational capacity led to the establishment of the Ugandan National Institute of Public Health (UNIPH) in 2013.

This paper presents a blend of literature that takes account of the successes, challenges faced, and gaps identified in the preparedness and response capacities to the infectious disease outbreaks experienced in the last two decades. It also reviewed how the national efforts had fared in operational readiness for an emergency response to epidemics, building a resilient health system, practicing the One-Health human-animal-environment interface, and in government, community, and individual capacities to contribute effectively to strengthen the national emergency preparedness and response to these frequent disease outbreaks. The findings revealed that Uganda’s outbreak preparedness had made much progress over two decades, from the overwhelming Sudan strain Ebola virus outbreak in 2000-2001 to a similar episode from the same species in 2022 to 2023.

The response measures that feature the activation of a national response plan by the MoH were well coordinated locally to swiftly lead to the activation of NTF, NRRT, DTF, DRRT, and VHTs for immediate mobilization and deployment of operational resources to affected districts. The response was strengthened by well-organized local coordination by the MoH and development partners (WHO, CDC, UN agencies, etc.). The immediate setting up of treatment and isolation centers, provision of Ebola kits, training of more health workers, and coverage of 10 high-risk districts ensured a significant impact.

The provision of more than 5000 doses of vaccines with the support of WHO and partners was a global capacity milestone impact, and the country was declared Ebola-free in a record 69 days. Uganda’s current national emergency preparedness and response plan has received commendations locally and from global international partners, having progressively built capacity from lessons learned in just over a decade of responding to frequent infectious disease outbreaks and using the recommendations proffered accordingly.

This sustained momentum of preparedness supported the swift transition to contain COVID-19 and laid a good foundation for their strengthened readiness for an emergency response to outbreaks.

Communication &Ebola &Epidemic Bill Brieger | 26 Oct 2014

What the Press Tells Us about the Early Days of Liberia’s Ebola Outbreak

The mass media are assumed to play an important role in the national response to a crisis, and Ebola should be no exception. The first cases of the disease in Liberia appeared in March 2014 after victims crossed the border from its point of origin In Guinea. A search for Ebola-related articles from the early period, March to May, was undertaken in The Liberian Observer.

DSCN7963While to date over 1,000 articles and references on Ebola were found in The Liberian Observer, most of the news coverage has appeared from August to October. In particular there were few articles in March, a surge in April and then a tapering off in May and June, before Ebola gained more prominence in print from July onwards.

Generally the early news articles in the Observer report events and opinions surrounding Ebola rather than serve as direct avenues for behavior change communication (BCC). Articles on politics, science, religion, economics, social commentary and even cartoons focused indirectly or directly on key events in the development of the national response.

DSCN7881Because of upcoming elections politicians used the outbreak to criticize each other’s response to the problem. In the early days the economic concerns focused primarily on reduced revenues across national borders in the region. Religious leaders either tried to rally support for control through prayer and fasting or blamed the epidemic on sin.

A couple opinion pieces in April acknowledged that BCC was going on through the radio. Special events such as sporting and athletics adopted an Ebola prevention theme, and several local NGOs pledged support for community outreach and awareness creation. Senators even had a retreat to learn more about the disease so they could educate their constituents.

DSCN7922 aOn March 23rd Marday L Peters wrote in the Observer, As Deadly Virus Threatens Liberia, Where is the Outcry?” At least from the communications point of view, the situation improved in April.

A.M. Johnson, The Health Correspondent for the Observer reported about Health Promoters Network, Liberia (HPNL) on April 3rd, quite early in the outbreak. HPNL in expressing its support for Ministry of Health and Social Welfare efforts “urged everyone within our borders to adhere to those preventive measures such as do not eat animals that are found dead in the bush, and avoid contacts with fruit bats, monkeys, chimpanzees, antelopes and porcupines. Limit as much as possible direct contact with body fluids of infected persons or dead persons. Wash your hands with soap and water as frequently as possible.” HPNL called on other Liberian NGOs to join the cause of educating the public.

On April 20th, S. Vaanii Passewe, II mentioned in a commentary that, “… the airwaves were laden with the news of an outbreak of the deadly Ebola outbreak… Subsequent warnings from the Ministry of Health notably said that the populace should report suspected cases, refrain from coming into body contact with suspected Ebola patients, avoid shaking hands, do not have casual sex with strangers, etc. These weird precautionary measures heightened fear.”

Some actionable information was provided in regular news articles in April. For example in an article on April 25th The Observer talked about “Ending Ebola in Liberia, A Collective Approach Needed,” readers were told about the symptoms, the potential spread through fruit bats and the fact that there was no specific cure, but supportive care is needed.

Further study of more mass media outlets concerning Liberia’s Ebola control efforts is needed. We know that although an early start to educate the public was undertaken, a relative dearth of coverage in the Observer might also indicate a reduction in enthusiasm by the press, NGOs and government to sustain Ebola communication and action. For whatever reason, the epidemic spiked. Fortunately efforts are now back on track, but there is a long road ahead.

Epidemic &Health Systems Bill Brieger | 28 Aug 2010

Malaria – another challenge for Pakistan

who-syed-haider-pakistan-flood2.jpgLike other diseases, malaria takes advantage of natural and human disasters. Pakistan may be the latest example. UN Radio reports that, “Cases of suspected malaria are increasing in the flood-affected provinces of Sindh and Balochistan in Pakistan, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The agency says malaria is adding to the already increasing trends of water and vector-borne diseases, especially in Sindh and Punjab provinces.”

While WHO is providing treatment kits with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) medicines, a bigger challenge may be destruction of infrastructure, including health services. Jhpiego explains that, “In 2005, northern Pakistan was struck by a massive earthquake, destroying 80% of the structures in that region and reducing the quality of, and access to, primary health care services.” Similar problems are expected because of the floods.

After the 2005 quake, USAID funded Primary Healthcare Revitalization, Integration and Decentralization in Earthquake-affected areas  or the PRIDE Project for 2006-10, which involved improving primary health care services at 94 health care facilities.

Pakistan experiences both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The Demographic and Health Survey reports that the transmission pattern is a combination of stable and unstable malaria with low to moderate endemicity, with epidemic breakouts in Punjab and Sindh provinces. “The disease is now emerging as a prominent health problem in Balochistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).” That 2006-07 DHS showed very low utilization of insecticide-treated bednets and low uptake of malaria medicines by children and pregnant women.

Pakistan has received three rounds of malaria grants from the Global Fund. A combination of Global Fund and government support was trying to address the 30 most highly endemic districts in the country. Although the latest grant performance report gave Pakistan an ‘A2’ grade, other news reports paint a different picture.

According to IRIN, “Pakistan’s Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy is lagging far behind the international goal of reducing the disease worldwide by 50 percent by 2010, mainly because of a lack of skilled staff and a shortage of funding.” A health official explained that “existing surveillance system is the major challenge at the moment, since we do not have accurate data.” This information pre-dated the flooding, and consequently the health system is in even less of a position to respond to malaria challenges now.

Pakistan needs appropriate emergency response to a potential malaria epidemic, but eyes should also be focused on the longer term need for reconstruction and strengthening of the health system. Otherwise malaria cannot be eliminated.