Posts or Comments 20 June 2024

Archive for "Community"



Community &Funding &HIV Bill Brieger | 19 Mar 2024

Resources for HIV Financing in Nigeria: Empowering Local HIV Control Organizations

Tom Kehinde has posted an important perspective on local and community action in HIV control on the blog for the course Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care. See the key issues from that posting below.

Nigeria grapples with one of the highest burdens of HIV/AIDS globally, with an estimated 1.9 million people living with the virus. Despite significant international assistance, the country heavily relies on external financing to combat the epidemic. This dependency on foreign aid is unsustainable in the long term and undermines Nigeria’s ability to address the epidemic effectively, perpetuating health disparities and social inequalities. Marginalized populations, such as women, youth, face heightened vulnerability to HIV infection due to limited access to prevention, treatment, and care services. To confront this pressing issue, empowering local HIV control organizations through increased domestic funding not only enhances their capacity to deliver targeted interventions but also fosters community ownership and sustainability.

(Photo source: The guardian)

Highlighting the position of stakeholders on this issue, firstly, WHO plays a pivotal role in providing technical guidance and support to countries like Nigeria in combating HIV/AIDS. Collaborating with WHO to develop evidence-based guidelines and technical assistance programs could bolster Nigeria’s efforts towards mobilizing domestic resources for HIV financing. National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA): the leading agency responsible for HIV/AIDS control in Nigeria, NACA advocates for increased domestic financing and empowerment of local HIV control organizations. Partnering with NACA to strengthen advocacy efforts and capacity-building initiatives could drive policy change. Despite the importance of mobilizing domestic resources for HIV financing, several challenges persist. These include inadequate funding allocations in national budgets, limited institutional capacity for effective resource mobilization and management. Developing a strategic plan such prioritizing advocacy for increased domestic funding for HIV/AIDS programs, enhance coordination among stakeholders, strengthen institutional capacity for resource mobilization and management, and promote community engagement and ownership of HIV/AIDS interventions. To conclude, mobilizing domestic resources for HIV financing is vital for Nigeria’s epidemic control. WHO must provide tailored guidelines, technical support, and advocate for local engagement. NACA should prioritize policy advocacy such as lobbying for increased budget allocations, strengthen collaboration as establishing joint task forces with other government agencies and NGOs, facilitating resource-sharing and coordinated efforts, and enhance community involvement. These concerted efforts will empower local organizations, bolster health systems, and mitigate the HIV burden, fostering sustainable development.

Community &Mental Health &Peer Education/Counseling Bill Brieger | 12 Mar 2024

Sudan’s Mental Health Crisis: Community-Led Peer Mental Health Counseling

Sudan’s Mental Health Crisis: Community-Led Peer Mental Health Counseling

Omnia Hassan has posted about a unique program of peer-led mental health counseling. Read her thoughts below and check them in the class blog of Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care.

As Sudan faces persistent war and conflict, the focus must turn to Sudanese internally displaced persons (IDPs) who are unable to escape the country, facing increasing incidence rates of several serious mental health burdens.

Graphs Source: Mental health consequences among Sudanese due to the armed conflicts and civil unrest of 2023: a cross-sectional study

In Sudan, there are only two psychiatric hospitals and seventeen outpatient mental health facilities for a population of over 40 million. To support the IDPs with improved access to mental health care, the development of a community-led mental health counseling program may be beneficial where community members are educated on how to counsel their peers through mental health burdens. This initiative aims to reduce the effects of mental health illnesses, create a space to speak about difficult experiences, provide accessible mental health resources, and empower Sudanese individuals, restoring their autonomy.

A successful example of this program in Uganda with Rwandan and Somali refugees with PTSD where the evidence demonstrated that 65% of participants no longer fulfilled the criteria for PTSD.

Universities in Sudan, such as Ahfad University of Women, have committed themselves to the education and training of community members to equip them with the knowledge and skills to provide mental health counseling for their peers. The Sudan Ministry of Health (MoH) has lent staff and workers to increase the numbers of those being trained to become lay counselors. Funding is a particular point of discussion, and the United States has frequently sent funds to Sudan for humanitarian assistance. The U.S. Department of State funded a grant for the Ahfad University of Women before as part of the University’s Trauma Training Treatment Center.

Photo Source: Reuters

The UN Refugee Agency acknowledges the displacement issues brought upon the Sudanese population during the war. They have explicitly commented on the displacement of Darfuris in the western region of Sudan, sharing the interventions they have implemented to mitigate mental health issues, such as promoting social cohesion. With over 10 million people uprooted and 9 million people internally displaced, Sudan’s war fuels the largest displacement crisis in the world. The mental health of these individuals needs to be addressed as they endure the most grueling event of their lives.

 

Community &WASH &water Bill Brieger | 19 Aug 2023

WASH and UNICEF in Vietnam: A Tale of New Policies, Successes and Challenges

Kayla Vuong has written about the importance of water and sanitation in the class blog of the JHU course Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care. Below are her observations.

“Universal access to clean, safe drinking water and improved sanitation” still remains a challenge in Vietnam, a low-middle income country in Southeast Asia. In order to address this challenge, the Government of Vietnam has asked for support from the United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF), who has had 40 years of experience in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH).

Since its involvement in 2018, UNICEF has helped the Vietnamese government develop national WASH policy and test out policy implementation at four remote provinces of Vietnam (Dien Bien, Gia Lai, Kom Tum and An Giang).

In fact, UNICEF has been collaborating with many Vietnam national partners such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Education (MOE) and Ministry of Construction (MOC) to deploy “communication tools on drinking water safety, household water treatment and storage, community-led total sanitation (CLTS), and school-led total sanitation and WASH in schools under the Integrated Early Childhood Development (IECD) program“.

Additionally, UNICEF has also planned National “Open Defecation Free” (ODF) initiatives which is still pending approval from the Ministry of Construction.

These efforts really paid off as improvement in water safety, sanitation and hygiene has been observed throughout the country. Indeed, thousands of households have benefited from “upgraded WASH facilities and ceramic water filters; 18,000 children now practice healthy WASH behaviors“, as seen in the featured picture of this blog.

However, “disparities in access to hygiene and sanitation remain a social challenge.” Open defecation is still a social norm in the poorest regions of Vietnam such as the Central Highlands and Northern mountainous regions. Only 13% of the population wash their hands with soap after defecating and “the rate is even lower among ethnic minority groups.”

Clearly, there are still more work to be done. Moving forward, in order to sustain WASH, the Government of Vietnam should involve its stakeholders who may be able to support them. For example, key findings in WASH should be shared with all the stakeholders (MAR, MOH, MOE, MOC, community partners, etc.) for program development and policy discussion purposes. The government should also partner up with local ceramic manufacturers to produce low-cost ceramic filters for the public.

Finally, Vietnam should enlist its biggest supporter UNICEF, who has great partnerships and global cooperation networks, to invest more in both direct interventions for improved facilities, local capacities in WASH and policy development to bridge those disparities.

commodities &Community &Essential Medicines &Primary Health Care Bill Brieger | 11 May 2023

Online Short Course: Essential Medicines, Commodities and Supplies

Essential Medicines, Commodities and Supplies Needed for Community Level Primary Health Care Interventions is our 2-credit online course offered from 5-9 June 2023 as part of the Global Health Systems Summer Institute. Please check the syllabus and share with colleagues.

Course Description” Essential commodities are among the 8 basic primary health care services and the 6 health systems building blocks as defined by the World Health Organization

Primary health care programs in low and middle-income countries require essential health commodities be made available at the community level. Logistic systems need to be developed to ensure that commodities are adequately estimated and delivered. In addition, systems for safely maintaining and monitoring stocks are needed at the community level.

The Summer Institute offers a variety of short-term courses in a variety of global health areas between 5-30 June 2023. The Global Health Systems Summer Institute provides early- and mid-career public health professionals with cutting-edge skills in a variety of global health topics. The Institute is also a great opportunity for part-time MPH and other Hopkins students and fellows to learn a valuable set of skills in an in-demand and rapidly growing field of public health. Below are issues covered in the Essential Medicines course.

  • Overview of Essential Medicines for Primary Health Care
  • Essential Medicines for Primary Health Care
  • Basic Primary Health Care Procurement and Logistics
  • Financing for Essential Medicines
  • Implementation of Essential Medicines Programs in Primary Health Care
  • Preventative Chemotherapy for Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • Ensuring Essential Pharmaceuticals Go “Beyond the End of the Road”
  • Supply Chains
  • The Role of Indigenous Medicine
  • Supply Chain Management for CDI: The Malaria Example
  • Logistics Management Information System in Community Based PHC
  • Community Mass Drug Distribution
  • The CDI Process: Expanding Beyond Ivermectin
  • Supply Chain Management in Ethiopia
  • Community Supply Chain Challenges in Nigeria

Cancer &Community &HPV &Vaccine Bill Brieger | 23 Aug 2022

Stop Cervical Cancer: Promote HPV Vaccination in Kenya

Lisa Marie Clark has contributed this posting to the Blog site for the JHU site for the course Social and Behavioral Foundations of Primary Health Care.

Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of death for Kenyan women. Every day, 9 women die from cervical cancer alone in Kenya. HPV vaccination reduces the risk dramatically, particularly for HPV types 16 and 18, which may be responsible for up to 70% of cervical cancers.

Optimal vaccination is in early adolescence starting at age 10, before sexual activity begins. In 2020, uptake of the HPV vaccine in Kenya was low, with only 33% of the target population receiving the first dose and only 16% percent receiving a second dose.  Low uptake may be due to a variety of factors including misinformation, lack of access, and low supply of vaccines.

In 2019, the Kenyan Ministry of Health began including the HPV vaccine in the routine vaccination schedule. The vaccine, with support from GAVI, the vaccine alliance, is offered free of charge. However, the Catholic Church and medical professional groups influenced by religious ideology have been a major opponent to vaccine uptake. The Kenya Catholic Doctors’ Association has been vocal about urging parents to promote abstinence over vaccination, equating HPV vaccination with permission to engage in sexual activities. See vaccination from Republic of Kenya’s Ministry of Health in photo.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is hD-33n0HRIC3nk5MFEAGMj8-5yoZOZB010xICtXA0I369kfz70j7dkNDxeUms3y96gGDjlHNZHdTrUA3B0Zb6HtrqvGIITz4WBlaXzXpWO-cwnw0I8rmmtOxZh_n3WqHwwmMO6Jw-d9Xf4YJdaVUCj0In the face of such obstacles to vaccine uptake, more funding is needed to strengthen Kenya’s vaccination campaign, with a focus on building trust and strengthening partnerships with faith leaders to improve vaccine uptake. With more funding from GAVI and improved community engagement vaccination rates would improve, HPV infection rates would decrease, and lives would be saved as a result.

Chronic/NCDs &Community &Training Bill Brieger | 08 Jan 2022

Freedom Park Lagos Hosts Revolving Hearts Foundation CPR Training & AED Presentation

In their 2021 presentation at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, “Hands-only CPR Training Program of Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria”, Olufunso Odunukan and colleagues of the Revolving Heart Foundation mentioned that plans were underway to expand the training. Below, they share their recent public training in Lagos, Nigeria.

Freedom Park Lagos played host to the Revolving Hearts Foundation (RHF) – a non-governmental organisation which advocates Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) trainings and more of the presence/ use of Automated External Defibrillator (AED) in public places in Nigeria (and by extension Africa). The foundation represented by its visionary Dr. Olufunso Odunukan, an interventional cardiologist based in the United States, took a wide cadre of staff – from management to the most junior level, and vendor representatives through a detailed and practical session of administering CPR in a bid to save more lives and reduce loss due to not-quick-enough basic interventions in the face of a cardiac arrest or someone passing out due to a heart attack.

The NGO also presented an AED to the management of Freedom Park and in the same training showed how to set up the device following previously programmed instructions on the gadget. After that, with the use of mannequins and simulated AED materials, the RHF representative Dr. Odunukan took the participants through a very hands-on and practical experience of deploying CPR in a model situation. There was a video presentation that detailed what to do in the event a person suffers a cardiac arrest in a public place, at home, on the sidewalk, on stage or similar places.

The participants who included a wide array – cleaners, vendor workers, senior staff and middle management all gave good feedback as to the extent and impact that the training would have, even beyond the four walls of the Park. They also participated in a skit of a proper situation where they might need to take charge or be part of helping in an emergency situation, especially with the benefit of the lessons they had picked up in the training.

Dr. Odunukan equally advocated that this shouldn’t be a one-off session as the training could be replicated from time to time, so that everyone is prepared and savvy in the proper manner to be able to intervene and save lives, at least as a first aid in such situations, until professional medical assistance arrives. After the latter, on behalf of RHF, he presented the AED to the management of Freedom Park represented by the C.O.O.  Ms. Iyabo Aboaba who gladly accepted the device and reiterated the necessity of such gesture with the pledge to put it to good use, in line with the vision of the NGO to save more lives.

The training which lasted about 1hour 30 minutes ended with FAQs and an interactive and enlightening session based on the model skit and how to replicate an efficient process in the event of a real-life situation.

Antenatal Care (ANC) &Communication &Community &COVID-19 &IPTp &Malaria in Pregnancy &mHealth Bill Brieger | 18 Nov 2021

SMS to support health worker knowledge retention of maternal health and malaria interventions

The TiPToP malaria in pregnancy project of Jhpiego and Unitaid has been adjusting to the COVID-19 pandemic. Their abstract below is being presented at the 2021 American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Annual Meeting and explains the use of bulk SMS to support health worker knowledge retention on antenatal care and the use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy during COVID-19 in Bosso local government area of Niger State, Nigeria. See Author List below.

In light of COVID-19 travel restrictions, bulk SMS were used to support knowledge retention of health workers following an in-person training held before the pandemic. In December 2019, 72 facility health workers and 260 community health workers (CHWs) in Bosso local government area of Niger State, Nigeria participated in a 12-day training about benefits of early antenatal care (ANC) attendance, CHW referrals to ANC, and use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to prevent malaria.

In-person supervision visits were conducted 3 months following training, although three months later in-person supervision was no longer possible due to COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Post-training support transitioned to use of bulk SMS which were sent twice a week to each cadre for two 3-month rounds of messaging.

Knowledge tests comprised of 10 multiple choice questions linked to key ANC and IPTp guidelines were administered at 5 time points: 1) baseline; 2) post-training; 3) at in-person supervision visit 3 months after training; 4) after first round of bulk SMS (6 months post-training); and 5) after second round of bulk SMS (9 months post-training).

Average test scores for each cadre were calculated at each time point and T-tests were used to assess differences in scores. The results show that facility health workers scored an average of 53% on the pre-test followed by scores of 76%, 74%, 86%, and ending at 80% 9 months following training. CHWs started with an average score of 49% which increased to 67% post-training; subsequent average scores were 83%, 74%, and 94%.

Results were compelling with facility health worker knowledge improving from 76% immediately post-training to 80% 9 months later (p-value<0.05) and for CHWs the improvement was from 67% to 94% (p-value<0.05). These findings suggest that use of SMS can support knowledge retention of key ANC and IPTp guidelines following an in-person training. Program managers, trainers and supervisors may consider using this approach to support health workers where resources and/or movement are restricted.

AUTHOR INFORMATION:

Charity Anoke 1, Orji Bright 1, Joseph Enne 1, Bartholomew Odio 1, Christina Maly 2, Amina Zimro 3, Ibrahim Idris 3, Elizabeth Njoku 1, Oniyire Adetiloye 1, Emmanuel Dipo Otolorin 1, Elaine Roman 2  — 1Jhpiego, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Niger State Ministry of Health, Minna, Nigeria

Community &Diagnosis &Guidelines &Health Workers &IPTp &Malaria in Pregnancy &Monitoring &Treatment Bill Brieger | 02 Nov 2021

Updating Malaria Guidelines and Tools: The Kenya Example

Kenya Division of National Malaria Program (DNMP) with support from PMI Impact Malaria (IM) and in collaboration with other stakeholders reviewed/developed/updated nine key program documents. Agustine Ngindu and the Impact Malaria/PMI team stress the importance of keeping key malaria technical guidance and tools up-to-date.

Guidelines for the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Malaria in Kenya was revised to indicate the start of IPTp at 13 weeks from the prior recommendation of 16 weeks of gestation and updated the IPTp schedule in line with WHO guidance. The program also updated dosing charts for artemether lumefantrine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and injectable artesunate to include both weight and age range particulars. This update will enhance adherence to treatment guidelines among healthcare workers

The Kenya Quality Assurance Guidelines for Parasitological Diagnosis of Malaria was in draft form for nearly 10 years. Revisions were motivated by the lack of a functional quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) system for malaria diagnosis. Sections were added to guide implementation of internal quality control and external quality assurance programs. Updates also provided guidance on surveys to determine the extent of gene deletion and its effect on routine RDT-based malaria diagnosis.

Implementation Framework for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests was developed to facilitate rollout of malaria diagnostics QA/QC in line with Kenya Malaria Strategy (KMS) of 2019-2023. As p[art of this effort, the M&E framework was expanded to include the performance matrix. A costed implementation matrix to provide guidance was developed on costing of activities in line with KMS 2019-2023.

Biosafety Guidelines for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing at Community Level was highlighted in new guidelines developed to address emerging QA and biosafety concerns at community level. This was a response to requirements by the Kenya Medical Laboratory Technicians and Technologists Board to allow for a new waiver for community health volunteers (CHVs) to conduct testing using mRDTs.

The Guidelines on Community Case Management of malaria and its implementation plan were strengthened as was the Implementation framework for Rapid Diagnostic Testing. Updated job aids included dosing schedules for artemether lumefantrine (AL) and injectable artesunate for use at service delivery points by Health Care Workers in line with the revised guidelines.

Hopefully all national malaria programs will take the Kenya experience as an example of the need to update regularly all the tools needed for front line staff to achieve malaria elimination.

Capacity Building &CHW &Community &Elimination &Health Education &Indoor Residual Spraying &IPTp &ITNs &Malaria in Pregnancy &World Malaria Day &Zero Malaria Bill Brieger | 25 Apr 2021

Twenty Years of Malaria Day Observances: Jhpiego at the Forefront

In 2001 the first Africa Malaria Day (AMD) was observed. The opportunity to mark progress and exhort increased efforts for the continent continued through 2007. Then in 2008, the concept of World Malaria Day (WMD) took over, though it could not be denied that the bulk of malaria morbidity, mortality and intervention still was focused on African countries. Other countries have made progress such as the recent certification of malaria elimination in Argentina and El Salvador, but twenty years after the first AMD/WMD, Africa is still leading the way for creative, sustained intervention against the disease, despite threats to resources from economic downturns and new pandemic diseases.

Below we go straight to Africa to share activities and observances of WMD 2021 from Jhpiego’s African Malaria Technical Officers. After reading through, please watch “Jhpiego Leaves No One Behind | World Malaria Day, 2021″ on YouTube.

“Saramed” from Guinea reports that Guinea, like other countries in the world, celebrates World Malaria Day under the theme: ” Zero Malaria, Draw a Line on Malaria “. We are currently conducting the following activities:

  • Lectures and debates on malaria in medical faculties and health schools;
  • Animation of debate programs on malaria in public and private radios and televisions of the country,
  • Advocacy and sensitization of religious and other influential people
  • Carrying out a package of activities (administration of IPT to pregnant women who have missed their ANC appointment, community distribution of LLINs, screening and treatment of confirmed cases, awareness raising on malaria) in high incidence localities.

These activities is in line with the WHO approach of “high burden, high impact”.

Noella Umulisa reports that the WMD celebration took place in Eastern Province, in Bugesera district in the Mareba sector. Due to COVID-19 pandemic ,only 100 persons were invited to the event.This year’s the national theme is “Zero Malaria starts with me”.

Key activities during the event included …

  • Visit of breeding sites under sentinel surveillance
  • Visit of indoor residual spraying (IRS) sites
  • Launching of the Awareness of the population using drones on the ongoing IRS campaign in this time of COVID-19
  • Song by CHWs
  • Certificate to Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Training of Trainers who will train others up to village level
  • Speech of the Director General ,the guest of honor.

From Burkina Faso, Yousseff Sawadogo and Moumouni Bonkoungou shared photos of the celebration that featured a giant Insecticide-Treated  Net, a speech by the US Ambassador, a malaria song composed by a nurse, an official speech by the President of the National Assembly, and national recognition given to one of the current Jhpiego staff members, Thiery Ouedraogo, who at one time also served as director of the national malaria control program. He was decorated by the country’s authorities as a knight of the order of merit.

Bright Orgi from Jhpiego’s TiPToP malaria in pregnancy project in Nigeria ?? shared photos from a series of compound meetings in the community to mark WMD 2021. The meetings focused on malaria prevention and treatment. Provided opportunities to rural communities to ask questions on malaria issues. Here we can see that observance of WMD must be taken to the people who actually suffer from malaria and need to be actively involved in its solution. Deo Cibinda from the Democratic Republic of the Congo share photos of a national celebration, seen to the left.

Finally, As Kristen Vibbert noted, “These are such amazing World Malaria Day stories. I’m so heartened to see all of these great country efforts to remind everyone of how the fight against malaria must continue despite the Covid-19 pandemic.”  Charles Wanga tweeted, “We know how to defeat #malaria. But that’s not enough. We must do more to save pregnant women and children from the deadly scourge. This #WorldMalariaDay and everyday, because@Jhpiego leaves no one behind in our fight to #EndMalaria for good in Africa, and everywhere”

Communication &Community &IPTp &Malaria in Pregnancy Bill Brieger | 17 Nov 2020

What could hinder IPTp uptake?

Cristina Enguita-Fernàndez and colleagues share findings on from a qualitative study on the acceptability of a community-based approach to IPTp delivery in 4 sub-Saharan countries in the UNITAID TiPTop project. Their poster is available at the vitrual 69th Annual Meeting of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Increasing uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is key to improving maternal health indicators in malaria endemic countries, yet current coverage rates remain low. This qualitative study is part of a project evaluating the acceptability of a community-based approach to the delivery of IPTp (C-IPTp) through community health workers (CHWs) in 4 countries: the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Mozambique and Nigeria.

Between March 2018 and February 2020 a total of 435 in-depth interviews and 181 focus group discussions were carried out in the four country sites with pregnant women, relatives, women of reproductive age, community leaders, CHWs, and health providers. These were combined with direct observations of both community and facility based IPTp delivery.

Grounded theory guided the study design and data collection, and data were analysed following a combination of content and thematic analysis to identify barriers to IPTp uptake. Although the novel C-IPTp intervention overcomes some access barriers (such as distance from health care providers, and travel costs), the study identified important barriers, some of which cut across delivery mechanisms and others that are specific to the C-IPTp approach.

Cross-cutting barriers consisted of perceived attributes of SP that explain treatment refusal. These consisted of sensorial characteristics, including the drug’s perceived foul smell, taste and large size; experiences with adverse drug effects, such as nausea and weakness; fears of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriages or oversized babies leading to C-sections.

Attributes originated either in individual experiences of SP intake or were socially transmitted. Barriers specific to C-IPTp were centered around concerns over trust in CHWs as adequate providers of maternal healthcare and their competence in delivering IPTp. Despite sensitization activities, misinformation could still be determining these barriers. Ensuring an improved awareness of SP effects and its use, as well as a better understanding of the intervention should lead to enhanced C-IPTp adherence

Authors and Affiliations

Cristina Enguita-Fernàndez1, Yara Alonso1, Wade Lusengi2, Alain Mayembe2, Aimée M. Rasoamananjaranahary3, Estêvão Mucavele4, Ogonna Nwankwo5, Elaine Roman6, Franco Pagnoni1, Clara Menéndez1, Khátia Munguambe4 – 1ISGlobal – Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Barcelona, Spain, 2Bureau d’Étude et de Gestion de l’Information Statistique, Kinshasa, Congo, Democratic Republic of the, 3Malagasy Associates for Numerical Information and Statistical Analysis, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 4Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, Maputo, Mozambique, 5University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, 6Jhpiego, affiliate of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

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