On this final day of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene’s 62nd Annual Conference, there is a featured symposium on Malaria: Biology and Pathogenesis – Human Responses to falciparum. Presentations are listed below with links to the abstracts online.
Demonstration of enhanced strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum multifunctional T cell cytokine expression among Malian children immunized with the FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine by Shawna F. Graves et al.
The Study suggests that AMA1 vaccination induced an AMA1-specific CD4+ response; however, recognition of the vaccine antigen is not dependent upon c1L alone. In summary, AMA1-specific T cell cytokine expression was notably increased in children vaccinated with an AMA1-based vaccine compared to rabies. The possible role of CD4+ TNF-?+IL-2+-expressing T cells in vaccine-induced strain-specific protection against clinical malaria requires further exploration.
Fatal Pediatric Cerebral Malaria is Associated with Intravascular Inflammation and Coagulation that is Exacerbated by HIV-1 Co-infection by Sarah Hochman and colleagues.
We hypothesize that the intravascular inflammation and coagulation seen in CM autopsies contribute to the pathogenesis of pediatric CM and that dysregulation of these processes in HIV infection contribute to CM mortality.
Immune responses of rhesus monkeys to a self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN) vaccine displaying Plasmodium falciparum CSP B- and T-cell epitopes by David E. Lanar and co-researchers.
We have previously studied in mice the immune responses induced against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) epitopes using a self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN) platform. In conclusion, a PfCSP-KMY-SAPN vaccine for malaria was safe and immunogenic in rhesus monkeys. Immune responses to the vaccine were greatly enhanced if the nanoparticle was formulated with the adjuvant GLA-SE.
Non-invasive Pulse Oximetry to Predict Mortality in African Children with Malaria by Andrea L. Conroy et al.
The mortality rate for children admitted with malaria was 3.1%. We evaluated whether non-invasive pulse oximetry would predict disease outcome in malaria and compared the findings to venous lactate, an established prognostic marker in malaria. These data suggest that pulse oximetry alongside assessment of venous lactate may be useful in the triage and treatment of children with severe malaria. Additional advantages in pulse oximetry are low operating costs and real-time patient monitoring.
Placental malaria induces excessive vasculogenesis by Tara C. Bracken and colleagues.
Placental malaria (PM) results from sequestration of Plasmdium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and the resulting inflammatory responses in the maternal placental blood space. PM induces maternal anemia, preterm birth, low birth weight, or stillbirth, especially in primigravidae. The active/active chronic group had a significantly higher percentage of excessive vasculogenesis.
Retinal microvascular dysfunction in pediatric cerebral malaria is associated with death and neurological sequelae by Ian J. MacCormick and co-authors.
Our results suggest that central nervous system ischemia and leakage across blood-tissue barriers may be important contributors to the severity of pediatric Cerebral Malaria.